Production of Biofuels from Agricultural Feed: Banana

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Now a day needs of biofuel is most required because of non-renewable sources are going vanish. Biodiesel is the option for natural fuels for the production of bioethanol the main element is cost of feed-stock. The process carried out by producing biofuels from banana (Musa acuminata) is cheaper. In India production of bananas is larger than other countries i.e. (29666973 tones per year) in the world. For production of biodiesel from banana there are various method like banana pseudo steam, Pre-treatment & so on. In banana pseudo steam process fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.19%) gave maximum, ethanol (17.1 g/l), with yield (84%) & procellulosic substrate by using Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus. The highest by biofuel amount (4.32g/l) was produce from penetrated banana. Our aim is to build up efficient protocol for simultaneous Pre-treatment process and pseudo steam process targeting utilization of banana waste to produce biofuel like ethanol, butanol, etc.

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Overall in the world energy demand increases rapidly due to that increase in the production energy, prices of petroleum and environment impact caused by fossil fuels. So, there is need for alternative fuels from various sources have been sought for many years. Since the cost of raw materials which can up to 50% total production cost is one of the most significant factors affecting on economy of fuels. Now a day effort is more concentrated on using cheap and abundant raw materials. The materials which can be to produced bioethanol corn curb, Banana peels, rice straw, wheat, potato peels, etc.

Biofuels are may be classified under the different categories i.e. first-generation biofuels, second generation and third generation biofuels also. First generation biofuels usually made from carbohydrates, lipids and agroindustry waste or oil, starch, sugar, animal fats, vegetable oil, etc. Second generation biofuel are separate from the first-generation biofuels, only the behind the fact is feed-stock used in producing second generation. second generation biofuels generally not food crops. Second generation biofuels usually extracted from lignocellulosic biomass including cellustic plant, biomass such as the stalks, steam, wood, biohydrogen, bio methanol and bioethanol etc. Third generation biofuels are different from first and second-generation biofuels because of only there is a use of microalgae they are also called as advanced biofuel. seaweeds and microbes from the above microorganism we can extract 15-300 time more biofuels other than first and second-generation fuels. They are cultured as low-cost high energy and completely renewable source of energy. However, research still needs in order to make it financially competitive to Petro diesel and other petroleum-based fuels.

The consumption of bioethanol on early years is growing rapidly because it is alternative source of non-renewable sources. The consumption of bioethanol is less as compared to petrol, diesel, natural gas and so on. According to survey of consumption of bioethanol is more in U.S.A., Germany, Brazil and china is 60.000 TBPD (Thousand barrel per day),48 TBPD, 49 TBPD and 16 TBPD. India is also ranked country for production and consumption biodiesel i.e 2.5 TBPD (consumption) and 3.5 TBPD (production). However U.S.A., China, Japan and India still largest petroleum product consumer i.e 19,530,000 BPD(Barrel per day), 11,530,000 BPD, 4,120,000 BPD and 3,735,000 BPD.

Materials & Methods:

Raw Materials: Banana peel where are collected in bio-degradable plastic bags from juice house & also directly collected from cultivated farm.Chemicals: 98% sulphuric acid (H2SO4), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), yeast extracts agar, dextrose sugar, mgso4. 7H2O, Barker yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae), distilled water, Benzathine penicillin G.

For production of ethanol there are many types but we discussing in this paper namely two methods:

  1. Pseudo stem method.
  2. Pre-treatment method.

1Pseudo stem method:Banana peels were collected from juice bar and use as cellulosic substrate. It was mixed and sort out before use to obtain 50 trap size. Substrate (5 g) was proceed to different pre-treatment like alkali, acid for 18 hours at room temperature. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali treatment was fermented by saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. The yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae was maintained malt extract, glucose yeast, extract peptone, malt extract peptone, 0.5; agar ,2.09. adjust the pH 6.4 to 6.8. The by biomass obtained by cultivating the yeast cells in MGYP mixed medium and 1×107 cells were used for inculcation media. During fermentation process sterile is used for washing. The filter is dried overnight at 104°c. cultivated flask prepared by the addition of 20 ml of citrate buffer (50 mm, pH 5) to the content at 150 rpm for 30 minutes. Mixed enzymes were the filtrated by using coarse filtrated paper and filtrate are obtained was centrifuged 10000 rpm for 15 minutes. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g%) gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/l) with yield (84%) and productivity (0.024 g%h) after 72 hours.

After alkali treatment some critical aspects of fungal pre-treatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A.ellipticus and A.fumigatus for the ethanol production by s.cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been examine in the study. The aspects are wash with water to neutral pH and dried it overnight the treated substrate were applied for cellulosic enzyme producing using fungus namely A.ellipticus and A.famigatus by cocultivation using solid state fermentation (SSF). Lignocellulosic material (treated banana pseudo steam) for cellulolytic enzyme production under solid state fermentation. The composition of media was (g/l): (NH4)2SO4, 1.4; KH4PO4, 2.0; CaCl2.2H2O, 0.3; MgSO4.7H2O, 0.3; FeSO4.7H2O, 0.005; MnSO4.H2O, 0.0016; ZnSO4.7H2O, 0.0014; CoCl2.6H2O, 0.002; Peptone, 0.1; Tween-80, 0.1. The flask was gathered at different incubation periods and enzymes are obtained from the flasks. crude enzymes filtrate from the cultivated flasks was prepared by the addition of 20 ml of citrate buffer (50 mm, pH 5) to the contents out 150 rpm for 30 minutes. Mixed enzyme was filtered using coarse filter Paper and the filtrate which obtain from crude enzymes was analysed for various enzymes activities. The obtained cellulolytic enzymes are used for carrying out saccharification and saccharified hydrolysate utilized for ethanol production.

Pre-treatment Process: Lignocellulosic filtrate of Banana peels was collected from cultivated farm, and filtrate of banana peels were used as the primary source for the production of ethanol.The conversion of the Banana peel into bioethanol having basic steps are involved

  1. Pre-treatment process
  2. Hydrolysis process
  3. Fermentation process

In Lignocellulose biomass content more, carbohydrate. Biomass constitute of cellulose (40-50 %), hemicellulose (25-35 %), and lignin (15-20 %).

Pre-treatment process: Pre-treatment are generally used for the divide the mixed polymer of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose to produce the sugar used for the hydrolysis and the fermentation processes. The target of the pre-treatment step is to demolish lignin shell protecting cellulose and hemicellulose within the plant materials. The methods used for the pre-treatment include

Chemical pre-treatments by the use of compounds such as Sulphuric acid (H2SO4), Hydrochloric acid (HCl), ammonia and Sodium hydroxide (NaOH). 2. Physical pre-treatment involving the use of steam explosion or liquid hot water.

Biological pre-treatment that involves the use of microorganism such as white rot fungi, brown rot, bacillus, Trichoderma, Aspergillus, etc.

Pre-treatment process reduce the compactness, strength and crystalline nature of cellulose. The alkaline pre-treatment was transfer out using electrically heated autoclave by the use of 10% (wt./wt.) NaOH and liquor to fibre ratio of 6:1. We cooked the fibre at 120 °C for six hours prior to the discharge of pressure into the atmosphere. The peels clean with tap water and air dried at 45 °C. The mixture was filtered to separate the solid residues from the filtrate fraction. The filtered solid residues were completely clean with completely clean with tap water to natural pH and air dried at 45 °C.

Hydrolysis: The target of hydrolysis process is to further reduce the polysaccharide present in the pre-treated lignocellulosic biomass of banana waste into monosachhride subunits. The monosachride that will be produce upon availability and easy to handling.10% H2SO4 acid was mixed with the lignocellulosic biomass of banana waste produce from the various treatment process. The set up was heated at a temp 120c for six hrs and allowed to cost.3.Fermantation: The final stage of bioethanol production is fermentation.for the conversion of monosacchrides & some dissacharides into ethanol during hydrolysis. We use invertase in s. cerevisiae. An activated yeast strain was pick up from the biology lab at UDUS. The cerevisiae calls were suspended in deionized water. In yeast cells use as the only carbon source.

RESULT – India is amongst top five bioethanol producing countries due to the primary sources are widely available. In our country ethanol production is carried out by pre-treatment process, pseudo stem process can molasses, sugarcane, fermentation process, saccharification and so on. Then it is possible that agricultural wastage product and feed stock (like banana, mango, sugar cane) may be economically converted to bioethanol. The review talks about banana pseudo stem process gives (17.1 g/l) and process gives amount of fuels.

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