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Public School Teachers’ Present Apprehensions Towards the 21st Century Teaching Approaches

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Two-fold phases constituted this study namely; the qualitative phase intended to identify and construct variables linked to 21st century teaching apprehensions employing Thematic Analysis; and the quantitative phase intended to explore the identified factors utilizing Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) which serves as determinants of 21st century teaching apprehension framework. The result of thematic analysis revealed that teachers’ apprehensions currently revolved along the eight attributes of 21st century teaching. Further, the factors were measured and clustered on these 8th components respectively. The results of this study provide the strong empirical evidence to the dimensions of the 21st century teaching and learning.

The context of teaching should encompass both the use of effective teaching strategy and the concept of quality and value of teaching in the public school system (Shaw, 2014). Part of many curriculum development and innovation undertaken in many Asean countries is the integration of 21st Century Teaching Attributes (GURO 21 SEAMEO-INNOTECH, 2010). The advent of modern teaching practices and state-of-the-art instructional approaches are consistently evolving (Wagner, 2012). However, manifold studies suggest that numerous public school teachers continuously using traditional methods and apprehensive about adapting current teaching practices (O’Toole, 2013).

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Relative to this work is the study of Capel (2001) who mentioned teacher’s role in pacifying students’ anxiety towards different subjects without connoting teacher’s apprehension towards integrative teaching aspect. On the other hand, Jacob (2009) emphasized teachers’ role as curriculum designer without stressing their anxiety towards integrative teaching approach. Therefore, developing a tool intended to ascertain teachers’ apprehension on 21st century teaching attributes is imperative to be undertaken nowadays.

The most apparent reason why problem sensing as regards to teachers’ apprehension on 21st century teaching approaches is less appealing to initiate is due to the absence of tool necessary for accumulating data. Consequently, to develop a feasible research tool for 21st century teaching apprehension is the utmost aim and purpose of this study. 21CTAT is designed to help researchers who traditionally experience difficulty in finding appropriate questionnaire, thus, this will form part of innovative literature available for research application.

It is developed because there is no specific instrument available to measure public school teachers’ apprehension on 21st century teaching approaches. The availability of this tool will help school leaders in informing decisions related to faculty development and in relation to teaching load assignment. Lastly, when applied on research undertaking for collecting specific data, 21CTAT will help understand the experiences, beliefs, perceptions and feelings of teachers on 21st century teaching more accurately.


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