Please note! This essay has been submitted by a student.
With 5G about to become a reality, the technology sector is soon going to be revolutionised by opening the doors to various research fields, IOT, self driving cars etc. The data speeds and efficiency of 5G being very high and latency being low, the telecommunication services will be changed drastically. This paper throws light of state of art of 5G, current and future research in this field. Some of the key industrial players and case studies have been presented in this paper, to understand what changes and developments have been going on in the industries taking 5G into account. Some threats that stand in the path of 5G becoming a success and weaknesses of 5G technology have also been covered in this paper.
Every generation of wireless networks has bought about a revolution to the world, like 1G in 1980’s bought the very first generation smart phones. 2G in 1990’s allowed us to send text messages for the first time while 3G in 2000’s bought the online concepts to the world and 4G in 2010 giving the world the speed they need to enjoy there surf over the internet. Since the internet is expanding every day, the users require to consume more and more data on their smart phones which the 4G network /LTE is finding it quite difficult to handle and hence comes the 5G network which can handle a thousand times more traffic than the current 4G LTE networks. 5G will be the foundation for driver less automobiles, enhances VR experience and Internet of things. The fifth generation wireless network use ultra high broadcast frequencies which allows to transfer huge amounts of data very fast. Initially the broadcast range was limited and was overcome by the Beam forming technology and MU-MIMO technology which allows streaming across multiple mobile phones at the same time. Beam forming allows the signals to be sent where the data traffic is more unlike LTE which is omnidirectional regardless of the traffic. The 5G network is set to provide a massive speed of 20 gigabytes per second theoretically.
Combining Beam Forming with MIMO (Multiple input Multiple output) which allows massive users to use the same connections at the same time, this allows to have a faster throughput and reduce bottleneck situations. 5G networks aim at a million devices per square kilometre which resolve any issues of speed at a music concert or any other gathering involving a lot of people. 5G is set to come to the markets in early 2019 and will widespread by 2025, since 5G uses shorter wavelength it is prone to signal degradation so the providers are taking time to build infrastructures around the globe which include signal booster.
While the conventional mobile network designs focussed primarily on transmitting the single service (e. g. voice/video streams) efficiently, fifth generation(5G) networks will support manifold wireless features. For these wireless features, 3 major categories have been identified by Internat ional Telecommunicat ion Union Radio communication Sector (ITU-R). These are enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), ultra-reliable and low latency communications (URLLC), and massive machine-type communications (mMTC).
5G technology aims at connecting billions of devices and sensors, and introducing the Internet of Things (IOT) to the world. Customer’s lives are also expected to revolutionise with 5G having applications such as smart homes, self driving cars, augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR) robotics to name a few. Current researches in technologies making 5G possible are:
Aiming to provide manifold features unlike its predecessors (2G, 3G, 4G/LTE), 5G will transform the way we use technology by connecting billions of devices and sensors. Apart from boosting the efficiency and automation, 5G would be a huge step forward allowing us to explore areas like augmented reality and virtual reality. Following are the future research areas which will have their doors opened by introduction of 5G technology to the world:
Since 5G can revolutionise the network industry, it will increase the security measures to be taken, 5G will enable bringing about automatic driver less cars, but this in reality needs a lot of security protocols to overcome any cyberattacks which can lead to fatal disasters
The main idea behind 5G is to provide high speed data while consuming less battery with very less latency and to achieve this the providers will have a common infrastructure and hence the security to be provided must be significantly increased to secure the critical infrastructure. All the security providers will have a common critical infrastructure which means failure of any single operator will result in failure of the entire network if not carefully guided.
There can be a masquerade attach from a third party showing as an legitimate user resulting in theft of services and critical information. Attacks such as spooling can result in misdirected communication and frauds relating to the banks details.
Since 5G uses millimetre waves to transmit signals and they need a lot base stations than already present, which means the base stations will be on every other pole in the neighbour hood which will potentially increase the radio frequency radiations, which changes DNA cells, leads to cancer, varying metabolism and tons of health issues which is major distress to the public.
5G is a treat to the planet which disturbs the ecosystem, these radiations affect birds and bee health and low intensity micro wave radiations can cause disturbance in the plantation of wheat crop. 5G is promised to high speed, which is an open door invitation for cyber threats, as a result will inevitably increase the distributed denial of service attacks since 5G provides more speed at a higher bandwidth. 5G increases the number of IOT devices which means which increase in medical identity, data analytics and smart wearables, but the network must be very secure to protect these critical data such as medical and ECG reports, so the network must be reliable and very secure just as the equipment.
5G networks need to launch some satellites up the orbit initially cover up, these release hydrogen gases enough to have an impact the ozone layer of the atmosphere, which causes a distress to the atmosphere.
Unlike previous mobile network designs such as 3G, 4G/LTE, 5G focuses on a much broader scope by providing many services. High data rates, improved efficiency and low latency will give 5G so much services to offer like IOT, AR, VR, self driving cars etc. Since 5G aims to revolutionise the world, it brings some weaknesses like increased security, improved infrastructure, large investments, disturbance to ecosystem to name a few. Overall, the future of 5G is bright and it will change the way we see world and use technology by making human lives easier and more entertaining than ever.