The testing of inorganic substances that are present in water has many real world applications. One real world application for this is the testing of drinking water. Many cities regularly test their drinking water for contaminates that may pose a harm to the wellbeing of the people who drink it. This test is vital to ensure that there are no toxic contaminants that may be dissolved within the water that may pose a threat. The way that a person identifies these unknown substances through a serious of test. These tests include the gravimetric analysis, volumetric analysis, solubility test, flame test, conductivity, PH and melting point. After receiving my unknown substance I was able to conceive my hypothesis. The mystery compound is either calcium nitrate or silver nitrate due to its clear color and the shape of its crystals. The objective for this project is to be able to identify the mystery compound using different test. The first test solubility test in which the compound will be dissolved into two different liquids. The next test will be the PH. After mixing the compound into water, a PH reading will be taken and measured. The results will then be compared with a chart displaying the proper PH for different compounds.
What will follow is a conductivity test. The conductivity test will utilize water solution that has the compound dissolved into it and a conductivity will be taken and compared to a data sheet. A flame test will be conducted and will be compared with data to determine the compound. Lastly a gravimetric test will be used. The a chosen compound will react with the mystery compound. It will then be placed in a vacuum pump to allow the yield to be calculated.
Solubility: The compound calcium nitrate is dissolvable in both acetone and water. A plastic container containing water and a test tube containing acetone was utilized. About .1 grams of the compound was put in both acetone and water. It was then stirred continually with a stirring rod for about 3 minutes.
PH: A 100ml beaker was filled with 40 ml of distilled water using a squirt bottle. The PH was tested using PH meter. The PH was a neutral 7. Next .2 grams of the compound was measured and placed within the water. It was then stirred with the glass stirring rod until the mixture was completely dissolved. The PH was the taken.
Conductivity: Using the mixture that was used to measure the PH a reading from an electrical conductivity meter was taken. Insert the meter within the solution submerging both rods until a steady reading an be recorded.
Flame test: First a metal wire about 6 inch long with a loop at the end is taken and placed in the mystery compound. The a small piece of the compound is held up over the flame and held until a color is shown.
Gravimetric test: A solution containing .5 grams of mystery substance and .1 mol solution of sodium carbonate are mixed together. Once stirred with the stirring rod for about 1 minute let the solution settle. The use a grab a flask and a filter funnel. Attach the flask to the vacuum pump and pour the solution slowly down he funnel. Then allow the pump to continue to run for about 10 minutes. Once the solution is dry. Measure a watch glass and filter paper without the funnel and note the weight . Next measure a watch glass with the filter paper that contains the solution and record the mass. Once the two masses are obtained subtract the two mass to get the yield. Then calculated the percent yield by dividing the actual yield over the theoretical yield.
Safety: Make sure proper attire is on throughout the experiment. This includes gloves, lab coat and goggles. Make sure to handle all chemicals with cation and refer to the chemical data sheet for any information. When finished with chemicals do not pour down the drain use hand to the professor for proper disposal.
Discussion: The solubility test resulted in the compound dissolving within both in acetone and the water. This further conforms my hypothesis because calcium nitrate is very soluble in both solutions. The PH resulted in a PH of 5.8. To eliminate the variables distilled water was used and the PH was tested before hand to ensure that the PH was a neutral 7. Once the compound was added the PH dropped due to the compound being slightly basic. Calcium nitrate had a PH of 6 and the resulting Ph was close, thus further conforming the hypothesis. After the PH was taken the same solution was used to measure the conductivity. After placing the electroconductivity meter it read that the conductivity was 5.8. This result was close to the target conductivity. Gravimetric yield had 67 percent yield rate. After reacting the suspected calcium nitrate with 1 molar solution of sodium carbonate, the expected yield was .30 grams. The precipitate was then calculated using gravimetric analysis which resulted in .20 grams being produced. This yield was then divided over the theoretical yield resulting in a 67% rate. This number is pretty high thus furthering are conformation that calcium nitrate is the compound.
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