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Background

Motivation has made known to influence the strategy, performance, adjustment, and well-being of an individual (Vansteenkiste et al., 2005). It is increasingly becoming a key area of interest within the field of health professionals as it has been suggested to have a central role the success of the workforce and well-being and for the outcome of patients’ (Ten Cate, Kusurkar & William, 2011). The staffs of an organization are key resources to that organization’s success (Mensah & Tawiah, 2016).

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The performance of staff and managers determine to the huge extent, the quality of the workforces’ (Mensah & Tawiah,2016). Many organizations or businesses are concerned with what should be done to attain high levels of performance through individual, which requires close attention to how people can be well motivated through ways including rewards, incentives, and most essentially, the job they carry out and the organizational perspective within which they do their work needs to be considered ( Armstrong,2010). Inadequate motivation and morale of the workforce within an organization can contribute to loss of valuable employees or disadvantage in attracting skilled and talented employees (Dessler, 2003).

Rewarding staff within an organization can attract other prospective job applicants, help attain human resource objectives and contribute to the competitive advantage of the organization (Bratton & Gold, 2007). This is especially important in a competitive hybrid sector where the care homes are struggling for skilled, knowledgeable and enthusiastic staff in order to improve the quality of care and support for clients and gaining a very good reputation.

Different reward systems most especially are regarded as indications of workforce motivation (Caruth & Handlogten, 2002).

Employees’ performance within an organization is affected by several factors such as training and development opportunities, the condition of their work, employer’s relationship, job security and organization overall procedures and policies for rewarding them. ( Hafiza et al., 2011). The motivation that comes with rewards is an essential a factor that affects employee performance (Carraher, Gibbson&Buckley,2006).

The term motivation can be referred to as the total process that influences the arousal, way, and preservation of behavior essential to the working environment”. It comprise of psychological and decision-making meaning ( Tosi, Mero & Rizzo, 2000). The psychological aspect of motivation deals with the internal mental state of an individuals which is considered with initiation, direction, determination, passion and termination of behavior, while the managerial meaning of motivation deals with the various activities leaders of an organization introduces so as to induce the desired outcome ( Mensah & Tawiah,2016).

There are various ways to motivate staff, from knowing an employee’s activities in a job role by simply saying “thank you” to more multifaceted patterns which combine and set targets with a reward that is fixed (Torrington, Hall &Taylor,2008). It is will be however shocking for the management unit responsible for motivation in the care home organization to try to motivate their staff without knowledge on what motivates the staffs.

The motivation of staffs within an organization is still an important subject that determines the level of work efficiency of the staffs in the organization to commit to good performance (Mensah & Tawiah,2016). In another word, either intrinsic or extrinsic form of motivation add to employees satisfaction and thus contributes to performance and productivity (Bhattacharyya,2007). Treating employees right is considered a necessity (Lawler,2003), and the way management leads its workforce defines its ability to establish and maintain a competitive lead over other organizations( Dreher & Dougherty,2002).

Problem statement

A formal or informal, paid or unpaid job plays a pivotal role in the lives of individuals all over the world. It helps each individual to express themselves and their responsibilities in their working environment. Nevertheless, as several jobs provide both wages and workforce fulfilment, they may also create occupational hazards as well as risks to the health and safety.

Among the public and private organizations in the UK, the Care homes can be seen as one of the oldest organizations known to play a key role for individuals without employment, money or shelter, and those who were ill and without family support seek relief (Abel-Smith, Brian,1960).

The numbers of nursing homes are progressively becoming essential healthcare system (Cousins G et al, 2016). Despite their significance specifically in the provision of care for the aged with comprehensive needs, the sector is frequently disadvantaged because of recruitment and retention of health care professionals as there is high staff turnover is the facilitator for other challenges identified(Cousins G et al,2016). Another challenge of the Care homes may include health-related illness and hazards.

A research study identified that there is a major difference between the private and the public sector regardless of managers’ standards and reward preference (Mensah & Tawiah,2016). The study indicated that the private staffs are more likely receive a monetary reward from managers as a means of motivation than the private sector managers, where other institutional motivation factors such as promotion, staff friendship prestige are not a major difference between sectors (Wittmer,1991).

Hence, this proposed research seeks to find the best motivating factor for staffs at Collinson Care home that can safeguard that the staff has a work setting with the features of work known to have an association with motivation and performance.

Aims

The main aim of the study is to identify staff motivation and work performance at Collinson House Care home.

Objectives

To determine how intrinsic and extrinsic factor motivation influence on work performed at the care home.

To assess the motivational needs from the perception of staff at the care home.

The significance of the study

The significances of this study will include the following;

Provision of in-depth insight into the work life of healthcare assistant staffs with regards to employees’ level of motivation and performance since a good motivational method is vital for the achievement of organizational goal and objectives. An effective motivational program of staffs can attain efficiency to develop a good organizational culture.

Assist the care homes in maintaining, supporting, and attracting skilled and knowledgeable staff as motivation has different effects which may be viewed in the perspective of an individual’s output. Staff interest has to be managed in several ways, as it helps in maintaining and development of the actual believer who can contribute to the principle of the organization.

Provide a detail insight into the need of staff motivation and impact on work performed for the other care homes and they may utilize this as a guide when motivating their staff.

Provision of baseline information that may be used to develop and improve a model to prompt further studies regarding strategic guidance for care homes that are both providing and using reward and recognition programs.

Literature Review

Definition of Motivation

Motivation can be referred as ‘a decision-making process through which a person chooses desired outcomes and sets in motion the behaviors appropriate to acquiring them’ (Huczynski & Buchanan,1991, in Dartey-Baah, 2010). Lindner (2004) also sees motivation as a psychological process that gives behavior purpose, purpose, and direction.

Shah and Shah (2010) defined motivation as inspiring people to work; individually or in groups in such a way as to produce best results. It further states that motivation is a general term applied to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces. Shah and Shah (2010) noted that to say that managers motivate their subordinates is to say that they do those things which they hope will satisfy these drives and desires and induce the subordinates to act in a desired manner.

Motivation Process and Strategies

The motivation process starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or needs that activates behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal (Bhattarcharyya, 2009). According to Arnold, Robertson, and Cooper (1991), a needs-related model of the process of motivation is initiated by the conscious or unconscious recognition of unsatisfied needs. The needs to create wants, which are desires to achieve or obtain something. Goals are established which is believed will satisfy the needs and wants, and a behavior pathway is selected which is expected to achieve the goal (Armstrong, 2010).

A motivation strategy is necessary for conducting the daily tasks and motivating employees with common goals. It is not only a decision or simple words used to describe the goal but also using a set of skills to achieve it (Palmer, 2005). From the organizational point of view, the motivation process follows certain defined steps, which, as a continuum needs to be periodically reviewed and strategized to ensure its proper renewal (Green, 2000). This helps to maintain the motivation of employees.

Types of Motivation

Work motivation is mostly categorized into two types, being intrinsic and extrinsic motivation showing that different incentives have a distinct impact on employee motivation. Whereas intrinsic motivation is concerned with rewards as the activity itself, the source of extrinsic motivation is external controlling variables as explicit rewards (e.g. money, threat) (Herzberg, 2003; Cameron & Pierce, 2002).

McCullagh (2005) defines intrinsic motivation as an individuals’ need to feel competency and pride in something while extrinsic motivation is defined as the performance of an activity in order to attain some separate outcome and noted that, people can be both intrinsically and extrinsically motivated.

When an activity is intrinsically appealing (say, challenging), the positive effects can be undermined if extrinsic rewards are also linked to the activity (Osterloh et al., 2002) and crowd out intrinsic motivation (Lee & Whitford, 2007). This crowding out has been further elaborated under the cognitive evaluation theory, which proposes that extrinsic motivation can erode intrinsic motivation (Kunz & Pfaff, 2002). Reio and Callahon (2004) further concluded that both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards motivate the employee resulted in higher productivity.

Theories of Employee Motivation

Many theories have been propounded to examine the factors that contribute to employee motivation in organizations. These theories are important because they provide explanations to the reasons why employees are motivated, therefore, if properly applied, could lead to having better-motivated employees which ultimately may lead to increased productivity in organizations (McCullough, 2005).

The earliest motivation theories (pre-1960s) include, among others, Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of need theory (Maslow, 1954); Homans (1950), Fredrick Herzberg’s two-factor theory (Herzberg et al., 1959), and B.F. Skinner’s reinforcement theory (Skinner, 1953). According to Armstrong (2010), these theories have led to the understanding of motivation and are underpinned by motivation theory classified as Instrumentality theory, Content theory, and Process theory.

Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction has been defined in different ways and a definitive designation for the term is unlikely to materialize. Job satisfaction is a psychological concept that refers to job-related attitudes and characteristics such as pay and reward, policies, leadership behaviors, management styles and co-workers (Dartey-Baah, 2010).

A general way to define it, therefore, is as an attitudinal variable which is defined below: Job satisfaction is simply how people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs. It is the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs (Spector, 2000).

Armstrong (2010) also draws the attention that job satisfaction refers to the attitudes and feelings people have about their work. This implies that positive and favorable attitudes towards the job indicate job satisfaction while negative and unfavorable attitudes towards the job indicate job dissatisfaction. According to Armstrong (2010), morale is often defined as being equivalent to job satisfaction.

Methodology

Research Paradigm

The approach for this study will be a quantitative method with a systematic review of the literature. The quantitative method of study deals with objective measurements, and the statistical, mathematical or numerical analysis of data obtained through questionnaires, survey or manipulation of an existing statistical data utilizing a computational technique (Babbie, 2010). In other words, it focuses on gathering numerical data using it to explain a specific phenomenon.

Research Design

The study will employ a descriptive and experimental research design in a comparative analysis of employee motivation and work performance among staffs in the care home. Descriptive research design transforms raw data into understandable information for easier interpretation (Zikmund, 2003). Experimental research design deals with measured before and after the study (Babbie, 2010). This study, therefore, will focus on testing the association and differences in staff motivation within a care home to provide a significant insight into the study.

Research Population

The research population for this study will be all staffs and the manager at Collinson House care home. The care home was selected because it is a recent remark from the Care Quality Commission (CQC) related to the care provided to the residents of the home

Data Gathering

A structured questionnaire will be used to obtain information from participants. This primary source of data will be serving as empirical information for the study. The questions which are contained in the questionnaire will be closed-ended. The questionnaire will have four sections namely; Section A will be the biographical data of the respondent such as age, gender, marital status, section B and C will comprise of staff understanding and experience of motivation both intrinsic and extrinsic work motivation, and Section D will focus on information relating to work performance. The questions are meant to be completed by all staff and managers and non-managers.

Ethical consideration

For the study to commence at the care home. A letter will be sent to the management of the home requesting for the permission to carry out such as study. The letter will provide the risks and benefits associated with the study, and the how the outcome of the study will be handled. Respondents for the study will be required to sign a consent form before completing the questionnaire.

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