Research on How a Bill Becomes a Laws in Different Government Structures

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The broad purposes served by the government is to promote order and provide general welfare to the people. The meaning of to promote order is to set laws, without them it would cause chaos because the people would have free will to do anything they choose. Having a governing body would be able to enforce those laws therefore able to promote order. The meaning of to promote the general welfare is to act on problems that the people cannot do on their own, examples such as helping people in poverty, giving out food stamps, providing cheaper leaving, also providing national security from threats such as terrorists.

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Characteristics of an autocracy institutions would include that there is a single winning coalition that has an absolute power, large disenfranchised population, no selectorate, no oversight, high amounts of military spending, uncontested elections, focused nationalism, limited international engagement, limited basic rights, signal party system and no oversight. Example of an autocracy would include North Korea where Kim Jong-un is the supreme leader and has absolute power over the country.

There are two forms of a monarchy institutions, one is constitutional monarchy and the other is absolute monarch. Rule by one such as king or queen that has complete power.

”Characteristics of a constitutional monarchy institution would include multiple parties with contested elections, a shared government, with elected bodies of legislative executive and judicial, more expansive rights and a larger selectorate. Characteristics of an absolute monarchy a sole powerful leader without a constitution and without legally bound by written laws, no legislative, with an institution being like an autocracy with are larger disenfranchise. Example of a constitutional monarchy would be United Kingdom where Queen Elizabeth is the head of government but the Prime Minister, Boris Johnson governs United Kingdom. Example of an absolute monarchy would be Saudi Arabia where there is a king that serves as head of state, King Salman. bAn oligarchy is a type of government held by small number of people that are usually rich, noble and educated people.

Characteristics of an Oligarchy would include separations of power, larger disenfranchised, basic rights, free economics, and hold elections. Example of an oligarchy would be China where it has political elite families and businessmen that manage the country.

A Democracy is a type of government where the citizens have power or citizens elect members to power. Typically, there is two forums of Democracy, a direct Democracy and a Representative Democracy.

A representative Democracy is a form of government that has its citizens elect representatives for legislation to run the country. Characteristics of a Democracy include, power to citizens, elections, expansive rights, checks and balances, larger selectorate and multiple parties. Examples of direct democracy would be Switzerland. In Switzerland every four years the citizens vote on federal proposals. Examples of representative democracy would be the United States where the citizens vote in government officials to make important decisions for them.

A Theocracy is a type of government where a higher power or religious leaders has ruling authority over its citizens. Characteristics of a Theocracy would include supreme leader, religious law, one major religion, one winning coalition with a large disenfranchised. Examples of a Theocracy would be Iran supreme leader is Ali Khamenei which is head of religion and Iran’s president is Hassan Rouhani the head of government.

Democratic backsliding is the process of removal of democratic institutions causing a backslide towards an autocracy. An example of Democratic backsliding would be Trumps travel ban in 2017, which was an executive order by Trump to suspended muslin refugees from traveling to United States. An example of democratization would be the Arab springs in 2011 which toppled many autocracy regimes in the middle east.

How a bill becomes a law. First a member of congress will introduce the bill by dropping it into the wooden box called the “hopper” or either giving clerk at the Senate. Next the bill is given to the relevant committee then to the relevant subcommittee. If the bill hasn’t died, then a date is set to address the bill in the first chamber of the House or Senate

Once debating and considering all amendments then there is a voice vote and then the bill must be passed by both House and Senate. If the bill has discrepancies, then the House and Senate must come to an agreement on either side; depending on minor and major bills there is an amendment process between chambers where one chamber will modify then send it back to the other until they agree. Usually to resolve the discrepancies a conference committee then would be used that include key players from both House and Senate.

”If the discrepancies can’t be resolved, then the bill will die. Once the bill is agreed on by both the House and Senate then the conference committee will give the final approval on the bill. Next the bill is sent to the president then must approve it with in the first ten days to become a law. The bill can be also approved if the president doesn’t act within the first ten days while congress is in session. The bill then will die if the House and Senate don’t approve majority vote to override the veto. Rolls of committees are to draft legislation and key eyes on the laws they pass

Subcommittees are committees within standing committees that share tasks and information within jurisdiction. Example of a subcommittee is the Renewable Energy Subcommittee which focuses on studying the effectiveness of our renewable resource programs. The House has 435 members and each member is up for reelection every 2 years this creates more rules then the Senate. There are specific rules that govern a bill within the House.

There are managers on the floor that control the debates and allow members to have five minutes to talk about amendments. The Senate has 100 members and each member is up for reelection every 6 years. The Senate has less rules then the House but has problems working collectively. This is because of the unlimited debate and open amendment process.

Senate has the power to veto any bill if they practice filibuster, which they can talk a bill to death if 40 Precedence is a guidance set for future cases that have already been decided on past cases of the same topic. An example would be Obergefell v. Hodges which is s supreme court case that guaranteed same sex marriage. Therefore, this case made it legal which other courts must use precedence of Obergefell v. Hodges if they are arguing against same sex marriage. The role of precedent plays in the judicial decision is that the lower courts must follow the precedent from the supreme court if it’s clearly already been decided on.

Jurisdiction is legal authority to handle decision making on a certain issue. other members agree. There are two types of judicial philosophies, one is judicial activism and the other is judicial restraint. Judicial activism is when the Court overturns a law passed by congress usually because of a personal belief on a political issue. An example would beJudicial restraint is when a Court is willing to hold back on laws passed by congress or political issues unless clearly unconstitutional.

Obergefell v. Hodges was a supreme court case where a group of same sex marriage couple sued their states arguing the states violated the Equal Protection Clause and their Due Process Clause of the fourteen amendment. The outcome was the effect on the American society was beneficial by allowing same sex couples to have legal acknowledgement of being able to raise and take care of their children. This court case was also beneficial to the American society by reducing the power of the federal government and state governments on same sex marriage. Judicial restraint was used in this case because

District of Columbia v. Heller was a supreme court case that a citizen of D.C, Dick Heller, argued that his second amendment right was violated because D.C. required handguns to be dismantled and left a home. Ultimately the supreme court ruled in Heller’s favor winning a 5-4 majority. This case benefited the American society by reducing federal and state governments power on the second amendment rights also by allowing people of D.C. to have a functional handgun to protect themselves at home. Judicial restraint was used in this case when

Gonzales v. Raich was a supreme case that a resident of California sued the federal government arguing that California Compassionate Use Act was not in violation of the interstate commerce for the use of medical marijuana. Ultimately Raich lost the case where the federal government ruled that it violated the Controlled Substance Act and interstate commerce because it would make marijuana cheaper and easiest to get in near by states. This case effected the American society by giving federal government more power to ban the use of medical marijuana. Judicial activism was shown in this case because it stuck down California Legislation on the use of medical marijuana because it would affect the supply and demand of marijuana on interstate commerce.

Roe v. Wade was a supreme court case arguing that the Texas law that made abortions illegal was unconstitutional and violated Due process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Ultimately Roe won because of the right to privacy. This benefited the American society by allowing women to be protected constitutional the right to have an abortion. Judicial activism was shown in the court case because Justice Harry Blackmun struck down Texas law banning abortions.

The President’s powers form two places, constitutional authority and statutory authority. Constitutional Authority is powers coming from the constitution and statutory authority is powers from laws. The vesting clause, article two section one of the constitution gives responsibilities of the presidency by making the president head of government and head of government. Statutory authority responsibility of the president is that it is influenced by congress where they pass laws that give powers to the president. The opportunity of constitutional authority

There 5 major roles of the presidency are, chief executive, chief legislator, head of state, commander and chief, and head of party. The chief executive role is to implement laws, appoint certain federal officials, watch over the executive branch of government and make a budget submission to congress for the executive branch. Being the chief executive would be an example of constitutional authority, implementing laws would be a combination of constitutional authority and statutory authority. The chief legislator role is to recommend policies and certain key issues within legislative

Presidents and their legislative staff also work with congress to develop legislative proposals: they spend considerable time lobbying members of congress to support their proposals and negotiating with legislative leaders over policy details.” This would be an example of a constitutional authority. Head of state role is to be a symbolic political figure for a country which gives it its legitimacy. This would be an example of constitutional authority. Commander and chief’s role is to be the head of the military. This would be an example of constitutional authority. Head of party’s role is to act as the top representative for the political party they serve and to manage the parties influence to the public.  

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