Research on Social Development in Bangladesh

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People inside a general public have diverse interests, which depends emphatically on the social and monetary position of a person. While a few people would need the state to make showcase free so they can procure more benefit, other individuals, would need the state to control the cost of essential merchandise so they can keep up a better than average expectation for everyday comforts. For state, it winds up hard to fulfill the two gatherings – great elites and weak mass; as one gathering reserves the political gatherings for their race while other gathering votes political gatherings in a similar decision. Similarly, political researchers utilized diverse speculations to clarify the plan of open strategy, where government discovers it rather complexing to fulfill the alternate points of view and requests from differed social gatherings (Kraft and Furlong 2007: 64-65). For a case, the tip top hypothesis recommends that open arrangement is by and large the impression of the “qualities and inclinations of representing elites”, where the requests of mass individuals are disregarded (Kraft and Furlong 2007: 65). Along these lines, the legislative issues of open arrangement is a convincing issue in the period of globalization and innovative progression; where individuals have numerous stages to express their sentiments, numerous approaches to impact the administration and numerous worries to request. In any case, any open strategy, as of late, think of different choices, known as arrangement options, which once in a while give another point of view of an old issue and rethinks since quite a while ago concurred arrangements of certain social issues (Kraft and Furlong 2007: 100)

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In 2010, and again in 2015, the legislature of Bangladesh chose to force Value Added Tax (VAT) on private colleges who give higher or post-optional training. The understudies of private college enthusiastically contradicted the strategy and held exhibit to modify the arrangement. Following a few long stretches of peaceful challenge, understudies of private colleges were effective in changing the psyche of policymakers toward VAT free private college instruction.

A few issues are imperative here. Initially, the set up thought is that training is a principal human right; yet the inquiry is whether college instruction is a key right as well. The second issue is that the understudies who learn at private college by and large originate from wealthy families, as the educational cost charge is high contrasted with the educational cost expenses of state funded training organizations. Understudies are in this setting are not powerless rather they are confronting separation as government was not endeavoring to force vat on state funded college training also. At long last, social developments in Bangladesh tended to wind up rough while “No Vat on Education Movement” was an effective peaceful development. The key issues behind activation, methodology and investment would be a fascinating territory to investigate and connect with other developing developments.

Literature Review

Because of absence of seats in state funded colleges and lacking foundation arrangement by government16, private colleges in Bangladesh developed since 1992 under the Private University Act 1992. Private University ACT 1992 gave the lawful premise to opening the advanced education to private area while giving a legitimate system to take after. Under this demonstration, “any private individual or gathering of people and humanitarian associations (Trusts or Foundations) can set up and run a degree-granting self-financed college by satisfying certain conditions specified in the Private University Act”17. Afterward, Private University Act 2010 supplanted the 1992 demonstration. 2010 Act was passed with a mean to guarantee quality instruction, straightforward administration and great administration. 2010 Act set up discipline measure if there should arise an occurrence of rebelliousness to required conditions and task. As per the Private University Act 2010, private colleges are non-benefit associations, which are exempted from tax.

Despite the fact that individuals were distrustful about supportability of private colleges toward the start, however expanding interest and better quality instruction made ready fast development of private colleges. The billow of maintainability evacuated when the principal clump of alumni from the primary government affirmed private college (North South University) went into work advertise with high pay rates in 1996. At present, there are 92 private colleges in Bangladesh affirmed by University Grants Commission of Bangladesh (famously known as UGC). The vast majority of these private colleges are arranged in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Under 2010 Act, every college must have perpetual office for its activity. There is no collected insights on the aggregate understudy enrolment in private colleges, however conspicuous private colleges like North South University, BRAC University, Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB), East West University (EWU) and so forth, concede a few a huge number of understudies every year consolidating three scholarly semesters. An article by Dhaka Tribune recommended that in excess of 450,000 understudies go to private colleges.

The educational cost expenses of private colleges are significantly higher than the cost of state funded colleges, which are very sponsored by the administration. Following table demonstrates the educational cost charge per credit and inexact expense for an entire degree program for various private colleges of Bangladesh.

“No VAT on Education Movement”: Context and Perception

What Kind of Movement was “No VAT on Education”?

Social development can happen against a severe government, or now and then, social developments go for changing particular strategies or tending to the privileges of particular gatherings. Amid the FGDs, respondents were inquired as to whether they thought “No VAT on Education Movement” as an antigovernment development. All respondents answered saying that this development was not against the administration or state, it was basic a development against an out of line approach which disregarded understudies’ entitlement to instruction. One of the respondents from FGDs expressed,

“No VAT on Education Movement was obviously an anti-policy movement. The government has the right to make policies. Nevertheless, we are also aware of our rights and we have rights to stand against wrong policymaking. Our duty is to show the government what is wrong with the policy”. -A Female Student, University of Liberal Arts, Bangladesh (ULAB)

The Nature of Movement

The writing survey recommended that social developments could appear as either vicious or peaceful exercises. While savage type of social development may bring about indicating forceful conduct toward government with a desire that administration should consider the reason for individuals important; peaceful developments center around drawing consideration of government and also more extensive society through tranquil exercises. Every one of the respondents of FGDs said that “No VAT on Education” was a peaceful development. One such respondent from ULAB expressed,

“We know we are intelligent, we know how to manage our tuition fees and how can we step into society. We understand the economic value of breaking a car and its savage value. If we set a fire or break a car, that will not benefit us. The owner, perhaps, will buy another car. That will not bring any benefit to us. Moreover, as our protest was nonviolent, many people joined us. We did not harass anyone, break any car, or damage any kind of property. Instead, we created a No VAT Square in front of the State University of Bangladesh (SUB). We saw a mother coming there to tell her son to join the protest. We saluted the mother.” – A Male Student, University of Liberal Arts, Bangladesh (ULAB).


The greater part of the respondents, who took part in the “No VAT on Education Movement”, got data through online networking. This shows the becoming stronger of online networking in resident activation toward social exercises like dissent, battle and so on. Other wellspring of data included understudies, TV, daily paper and radio.

Among the respondents, 87% took part in the No VAT on Education Movement” and 12% did not partake in the movement. The investigation intentionally talked with private college understudies, where lion’s share of the respondents is chosen among the members of the development. The motivation behind the investigation was to comprehend why they took part in the development, what affected their choices and level of interest. The investigation concedes that including an equivalent measure of respondents from non-members of the development could have given a superior similar photo of the central point behind the distinction in the support. Be that as it may, the investigation concentrated principally on understanding the impression of members of the social development and investigating the linkage with their financial foundations and learning on the approach definition.

The purpose for joining any dissent or development can be different and rely upon how it influences the member. Much of the time, the nonconformists are the general population who are separated straightforwardly from certain administration activities. In different cases, individuals feel that administration activities are unjustified or dishonest, despite the fact that such government activities may not influenced them straightforwardly. If there should arise an occurrence of No VAT development, the two sorts of reasons are found amid FGDs. One FGD respondents expressed,

“One day, when I entered into our campus and saw students making placards writing no vat on education. I was surprised to see think how could be vat on education is possible. After returning home, I shared the new with my parents and they became upset too, as they would have to pay more money for my education. Then, I joined the protest and I found students with different economic background with us protesting against VAT on education. Not all students in the protest were from rich families, some students came from families who sold lands so that their children can get better education. VAT on education would put extra pressure on their families and their education might stop. Realizing these issues, I decided to join the protest.”

A Female Student, University of Liberal Arts, Bangladesh

Another respondent joined challenge for her companion, who originated from an indigenous family,

“My dad may have the ability to continue my study but my other friends may not have that ability if to the inclusion of VAT. I know a student, who is a Chakma and from Rangamati. His father is small government service holder, who took loan to get admit his son to the university. Hearing about VAT, he told me that he would be able to continue his study. As whole earning of his father are spent for his education and his family’s livelihood, inclusion of VAT means his father will have to pay the money of an additional semester”.

A Female Student, University of Liberal Arts, Bangladesh

The examination enquired about the level of support in “No VAT on Education Movement” going from idle to dynamic. Half of the respondents (51) appraised their support as dynamic 15 respondents expressed their support as “extremely dynamic” and rest of the respondents (21) expressed their essence as respectably dynamic, nonpartisan and latent. This demonstrates the individuals who partook in the “No VAT on Education Movement” participated in the dissent effectively.

Very Active 15

Active 51

Moderately Active 18

Neutral 3

Inactive 3

Total 100

Table 1: Level of Participation in “No VAT on Education Movement”

Among the diverse kinds of action, most members were engaged with barrier (74) and social blogging (51). Different exercises included human chain, hunger dissent, street walk, blurb hanging, signature accumulation, and hunger challenge and so on.

Human Chain 44

Road Block 74

Hunger Protest 16

Road March 29

Social Blogging 51

Poster Hanging 20

Signature Collection 19

Graffiti 11

Miking 7

Other 1

Table 2: Types of Involvement in “No VAT on Education Movement”

Amid the season of “No VAT on Education Movement”, understudies utilized a few methods of correspondence. The most continuous method of correspondence (75) announced by the respondents was informal organization. Different methods of correspondence included companions, telephone and grounds declaration.

Phone 36

Email 7

Social Network 75

Campus Announcement 33

Friends 44

Others 1

Table 3: Type of Communication during “No VAT on Education movement”

Among various dissent methodologies, most respondents revealed detour as the best procedure. In spite of the notoriety, social blogging is considered as slightest successful dissent system by the respondents. Other announced challenge systems included human chain, barricade, hunger dissent and so on.


Strategy Most

Effective Moderately

Effective Least


Human Chain 9 12 9

Road Block 44 20 10

Hunger Protest 5 14 12

Road March 2 9 5

Social Blogging 16 18 25

Poster Hanging 4 6

Graffiti – – 1

Signature – – 2


Miking – – 4

Other – – 2

Missing 23 23 24

Table 4: Most Effective Protest Strategy

“No VAT on Education on Movement” has been a peaceful development, while viciousness has been considered as a more affordable measure to impact choices. Such achievement of peaceful dissent can possibly change the challenge culture of Bangladesh. 86% of the respondents addressed that “No VAT on Education Movement” has changed the dissent culture of Bangladesh.

The investigation likewise enquired about respondents’ observation on issues like advanced education, open approach, responsibility and social development. About portion of the respondents (49) concurred that dissent like “No VAT on Education Movement “can impact government to change open strategy. The greater part of respondents (65) feels that social development can make government responsible and even, peaceful development can be effective in making government responsible. Lion’s share of the respondents figure government ought to be more responsible and straightforward and give the native space to take part on open approach making. On training, most respondents unequivocally concurred that “VAT on Education” was a crooked approach and instruction of all level in Bangladesh ought to be sans vat. The main special case in their conclusions is that huge part of the respondents differs that social development could convey negative picture to government.


Social development in Bangladesh is anything but another wonder; rather this nation has accomplished its autonomous after a progression of social developments. Indeed, even after freedom, certain gathering of individuals consistently enunciated their requests on different issues. “No VAT on Education Movement” is such sort of development driven by private college understudies of Bangladesh in light of government’s choice of forcing VAT on training. Following a few long stretches of peaceful dissent, government changed its choice with respect to VAT on training.

The investigation proposes that private college understudies are disappointed with the advanced education of private colleges and larger part feels that college level training in Bangladesh ought to be free. In any case, they think it is their entitlement to challenge any shameful approach. The contribution of private college understudies in the “No VAT Movement on Education” is likewise critical for a few reasons. To start with, private college understudies can likewise verbalize their requests when they confront unfair open approach. Second, peaceful development can likewise bring positive outcomes for some social worries in Bangladesh. At long last, social developments have a critical effect of open strategy and if government defines an arrangement in an undemocratic way, social development implants majority rule hones through the dynamic contribution of resident.

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