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Review of Literature related to Customer Loyalty

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S. No. Author Year Review

1 Muhammad Zaman Sarwar, Kashif Shafique Abbasi and Saleem Pervaiz 2012

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Clients possess diversified attitude & behaviour towards firms.

Factors determining trust are – Service quality, honesty, transparency & fulfilled promises.

Trust is basis of long run relationship between a buyer and a firm, which brings loyalty.

2 Alok Kumar Rai and Medha Srivastava 2016

Customer loyalty’s importance in today’s world.

Sustaining & developing bonding with clients which will lead to loyalty.

A class of loyalty is required that bestow in best way to a firm.

3 Arash Shahin, Ali Asghar Abandi, Mohammad Hosein & Moshref Javadi 2011

Customer satisfaction impacts buyer’s emotions and feelings towards firm & its products.

Satisfaction can’t build impact trust & commitment in buyers.

Relationship between buyer’s satisfaction & loyalty varies as per company’s size i.e. small, medium or large.

4 Sandra Martisiute, Gabriele Vilutyte and Dainora Grundey 2010

Customer satisfaction & customer loyalty depends of type of products.

Satisfaction of buyers is more important for innovative products than for traditional ones.

Satisfaction is a base for gaining trust

5 Ayed Al Muala 2014

Dimensions of service quality affect client’s satisfaction.

Amongst all, assurance has highest effect on satisfaction.

Higher customer satisfaction leads to higher customer loyalty.

Company should focus on satisfying buyers so as to enhance their re-purchases.

6 Dr. Sima Ghaleb Magatef & Dr. Elham Fakhri Tomalieh 2015

Customer loyalty programs reduces customer churn.

Loyalty programs helps in building and maintaining relations with customers.

Non-monetary loyalty programs do not attract many buyers.

7 Oghojafor, B.E. Akpoyomare, Patrick, Salome & Victor 2014

5 marketing factors namely product, price, distribution, promotion & customer service positively influences customer satisfaction.

These should be a focal point for firms to improve satisfaction as well as loyalty.

Along with customer base, profit margins also increase.

8 Leila Rahmani-Nejad, Zahra Firoozbakht and Amin Taghipoor 2014

Customer loyalty is most affected by customer satisfaction.

Trust and commitment impacts customer satisfaction followed by few variables of mental image.

Quality of service highly influences satisfaction.

Managers and supervisors are proficient to increase customer loyalty.

They can also build good image of company in customer’s mind.

9 Mustafa I. Eid 2015

User interface quality & information quality of e-commerce has significantly positive impact on consumer satisfaction.

In B2C e-commerce services (in Saudi Arabia), loyalty is influenced by trust and satisfaction.

Influence of trust is weaker than satisfaction.

10 Ibhrahim Zakaria, Rahman, Othman, Mohh. Yunus, Dzkulipli & Faiz Osman 2013

There is a significant relationship between loyalty programs and client’s satisfaction.

Monetary loyalty programs leave a positive impact on buyer’s satisfaction.

Non- monetary loyalty programs have less impact on satisfaction level in buyers.

11 Mohamad Rizan, Ari Warokka and Dewi Listyawati 2014

Marketing tactics focusing on customer relationship affects customer loyalty.

Customer relations though customer satisfaction and trust has greater effect on loyalty.

Customer loyalty should be considered as an important part of company’s growth strategies.

12 Richard Chinomona & Maxwell Sandada

2013 – Amongst service quality, satisfaction, trust & customer relationship, impact of service quality and satisfaction is highest on customer loyalty.

Service quality and client’s satisfaction must go through gaining trust and building relationship.

13 Mr. Basavaraj Sulibhavi & Dr. Shivashankar K. 2017

Relationship between brand image and customer loyalty essentially required to have customer satisfaction.

Focus should be put on satisfaction by firm’s managers to construct and maintain a good brand image.

14 Mohammad Majid Mehmood Bagram & Shahzad Khan 2012

3 key factors that directly contribute towards customer loyalty are – Perceived value, Perceived quality & Product attribute.

Perceived value and perceived quality are two of the bases of customer satisfaction.

These should be focused by the firms.

15 Jiana Daikh

2015 – For today’s business world, satisfaction is primary key.

Dissatisfaction leads to customer switching. Also affects re-purchase decision & creates negative publicity.

Satisfied buyers share their experiences with approx 4-6 people around them.

Firms must understand buyer’s needs and desires to maintain good familiar bonding with them & create loyalty.

16 Wasif Ammar, Zeeshan Mateen, Ahsan Ghaffar & Awais Ur Rehman 2015

Greater customer satisfaction leads to greater customer loyalty.

Product quality and Perceived value are two aspects which are base of satisfaction.

Firms should give emphasis on these to enhance profitability of the firm overall.

17 Tengfei Wang and Dr.Sirion Chaipoopirutana

2015

Factors like service quality, complaint handling, customer satisfaction, corporate image etc. impacts the loyalty.

With ups and downs in these factors, level of customer loyalty also gets tremble.

Service quality and customer satisfaction highly influence loyalty.

18 André de Waal & Béatrice van der Heijden

2016 – Employee’s behavior and attitude can modify customer loyalty and customer intimacy also.

Efforts are required by firms to build this.

Employee should also be aware about their behavior and attitude towards clients.

19 Adriana Scriosteanu & Daniela Popescu 2010

Client’s loyalty is main focal point in customer relationship management strategies.

This shows a way of success to firms.

Customer orientation strategy to target customer loyalty, instead of product oriented strategy.

Customer oriented strategy also enhances their future behavior and fulfils their expectations better than competitors.

It is necessary to know buyer’s needs and desires to build long run bonding,, it increases revenue and offers value to clients.

1) According to Muhammad Zaman Sarwar, Kashif Shafique Abbasi and Saleem Pervaiz (2012) have stated in their journal that in Pakistan, every client carries diverse type of attitude & behaviour towards organizations. Trust amongst them is generated through quality services, honesty, transparency in policies, fulfilled promises etc. Buyer’s trust is very essential to create & enhance long run bonding between firm & purchasers. This also brings loyalty. In their journal, evidence shows that cause related marketing is the vital driver of customer trust and customer loyalty.

2) Author Alok Kumar Rai and Medha Srivastava (2016) have explained in their paper about significance of customer loyalty in modern business era and discussed about exploring some factors that work as antecedents for development of client faithfulness. Main focal point is sustaining and developing customer’s relationship & its offering. The study also provides a framework for measuring buyer’s constancy as well as identifying particular class of constancy that contributes in best way to organization. These identified frameworks have great significance for service organizations in evaluating various programs & also in customer segmentation based on requirement of an organization.

3) As per Arash Shahin, Ali Asghar Abandi, Mohammad Hosein & Moshref Javadi (2011) have shown in their article that a significant relationship exists between satisfaction and loyalty of customers of ISG or not. The survey indicates that, buyer’s satisfaction influences client’s emotions towards firm & its commodities but can’t be a factor that builds trust & commitment in them. This relationship varies according to size of the organizations like small, medium and large size organization.

4) In an article, authors Sandra Martisiute, Gabriele Vilutyte and Dainora Grundey (2010), is has been explained that both satisfaction and loyalty depends on types of product, like an innovative one or a traditional one. Satisfaction is more significant for innovative products than for traditional ones. They said contentment is necessary for building trust. They both hold robust relation. Most Lithuanian producers and retailers are adopting product, brand and product-brand paradigms in their product development, branding, and promotional activities.

5) Author Ayed Al Muala (2014) have stated in his paper that all the service quality dimensions encompasses their effects on buyers’ satisfaction. Results show that assurance dimension posses highest effect on customers’ satisfaction. Thus, Jordanian banks must pay attention towards assurance & responsiveness so as to improve service quality by which purchasers will get satisfied and this will also boost up their buying decision from the bank. Additionally, results also articulate that customer satisfaction possesses very significant upshot on buyers’ faithfulness.

6) Through a journal paper author Dr. Sima Ghaleb Magatef & Dr. Elham Fakhri Tomalieh (2015) have described that customer retention get influenced by loyalty programs. He further described that all the loyalty programs run by any firm, are constructive & throw a positive impact on building and maintaining customer retention. Amongst them, non-monetary loyalty programs had weakest effect on buyer’s retention.

7) Authors Oghojafor, B.E. Akpoyomare, Patrick, Salome & Victor (2014) have examined 5 marketing variables (product, price, distribution, promotion & customer service) to determine their influence on customer satisfaction in telecom services also that can only satisfaction determine customer loyalty? Results stated that all 5 variables positively affect satisfaction. Thus it is important for telecom industry to focus on these variables in order to improve satisfaction as well as loyalty. As the customer base increases, profit margins also to improve. Authors have also recommended on how to improve on the reliability of network, reducing jamming in network and poor signals etc.

8) On the basis of the conducted research, authors Leila Rahmani-Nejad, Zahra Firoozbakht and Amin Taghipoor (2014) said that, satisfaction has the most effect on customer loyalty. After this, some variables of mental image throw their effect followed by trust and commitment respectively. In comparison to trust, quality of services has higher effect on satisfaction. Another point was that, supervisors and senior managers of private banks have ability to increase level of customer loyalty by increasing level of satisfaction, standardizing bank services, submitting higher quality to buyers etc. They can also create a good image in customer’s mind.

9) Mustafa I. Eid (2015) endeavoured to scrutinize the determinants of E-commerce, client satisfaction, trust and loyalty in Saudi Arabia. He identified some key factors, and it was found that amongst those user interface quality & information quality of e-commerce has significant positive impact on consumer satisfaction. Additionally, it was discovered that in Saudi, loyalty is influenced by trust and satisfaction in B2C e-commerce services. Amongst satisfaction and trust, trust has weak impact on customer loyalty.

10) Another study belongs to retail industry, where authors Ibhrahim Zakaria, Rahman, Othman, Mohh. Yunus, Dzkulipli & Faiz Osman (2013) have examined that a significant relationship exists between loyalty programs and buyer’s satisfaction at a retail company in kuala Lumpur. Monetary loyalty programs have a positive effect on satisfaction while non-monetary programs do not influence the satisfaction. Meanwhile, authors have also given some suggestions for the sector.

11) Authors Mohamad Rizan, Ari Warokka and Dewi Listyawati (2014) stated that customer loyalty is directly affected by marketing tactics that focused on customer relationship. The impact is likely greater if it is through customer satisfaction and trust. Study also validate that buyer’s loyalty is very important in banking sector. Banks should consider customer loyalty as an imperative part of their growth strategies.

12) Idea of a study by Richard Chinomona & Maxwell Sandada (2013) was to analyzing effect of service quality, satisfaction, trust, familiar relationship on loyalty. It was found that service quality and customer satisfaction influences customer loyalty on a large level, only if they first focus on gaining trust and building familiar bonding.

13) Mr. Basavaraj Sulibhavi & Dr. Shivashankar K. (2017) have concluded their research paper by a finding that customer satisfaction is essential to build up a relationship between brand image and customer loyalty towards private label brands. Further they stated that managers should endeavour to comprehend and constructing brand image in a way to escalate customer loyalty by putting adequate attention on customer satisfaction.

14) Mohammad Majid Mehmood Bagram & Shahzad Khan (2012) have talked by 3 key factors in their research paper, those are, Perceived Value, Perceived Quality & Product Attribute which directly contribute towards customer loyalty. As per a theoretical framework, customer satisfaction is based on customer perceived value and customer perceived quality. Thus a company should focus on above these.

15) Author Jiana Daikh (2015) has stated through their journal that customer satisfaction is very imperative in today’s business environment. Dissatisfaction has proved to be prime cause for customer switching. It affects the re-purchase intentions of buyers and leads to negative publicity to almost 10 people. While satisfied customers share their experiences with 4-6 people around them. Thus organizations much build and maintain long term relationship with customers through fulfilling their needs and wants.

16) In a research paper by Wasif Ammar, Zeeshan Mateen, Ahsan Ghaffar & Awais Ur Rehman (2015), it was described that greater customer satisfaction leads to greater customer loyalty and vice versa. There are 2 aspects on which satisfaction is based, namely product quality and perceived value, which directly put impact on loyalty within clients. Firms should give emphasis on this to boost up profitability.

17) According to Tengfei Wang and Dr.Sirion Chaipoopirutana (2015), factors like service quality, complaint handling, customer satisfaction, corporate image etc. have their influence on customer loyalty of Thai Airways. Changes (up and downs) in any of the above factors directly affect customer loyalty. Customer satisfaction has strongest relationship with loyalty. Findings depict that buyers who are satisfied and happy with a firm’s service quality, they will stay for a longer period with that firm.

18) A study held in Netherlands by André de Waal & Béatrice van der Heijden (2016) described that employees behavior can make changes in customer loyalty and in familiar bonding with them. Connection between employee’s behavior and customer loyalty is not just by chance, company needs to endeavour to reach up to a level where employees become proficient to build that connection. Ability to build bonding with customers should be entrenched in every employee who directly deals with them.

19) Adriana Scriosteanu & Daniela Popescu (2010) have described in their journal paper that Customer loyalty is the key focal point in customer relationship management strategies which indicates a path to company’s success. Now-a-days, firms are acquiring customer orientation strategy in order to achieve customer loyalty in lieu of product oriented strategy. They also said that client oriented firm can envisage their future behavior and can fulfil their expectations better than competitors. To build long term relations with clients, it is necessary to their needs; this provides benefits in escalating revenues and also in providing value to clients.

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