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Review On Psychology: Schizophrenia Mental Disorder

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According to the study, the researchers stated that environment is one the factor that express the disorder, but genetic factors are clearly important in the etiology of Schizophrenia (Dean & Murray, 2005). Genetic factor had the interaction between the environmental factor, if there are not any genetic factor, it also cannot cause schizophrenia (Dean & Murray, 2005).

According to Fierro (2018), study shows that there are two types of twin which are monozygotic twins (identical twins) and fraternal twin (non-identical twins). There are some differences between these two types of twins. In identical twins occur during one fertilized egg splits and develops into two fetuses. When a pair of identical twins are born, they are in the same sex. This is because they shared one placenta and, they are having the same genes. So, based on my personal experiences, I have the genes of identical twins. Fortunately, me and my sister are living in a good health condition, did not have any diseases.

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Besides that, according to Fierro (2018), study also shows that non-identical twins are different from identical twins. People who are born with fraternal twins are develop when two separate eggs and fertilized by two different sperm. Each of the twins’ member usually have their own placenta. They also share about 50 percent of their genes, so usually they can be same or different sexes. Next, both non-identical twins’ member generally does not look alike with each other as compare to identical twins. According to a study that conducted by Singh from University of Western Ontario, the study shows that there are some mutations or changes in DNA that can lead to an increased chance of getting a mental illness. People often ask what if something happens more often for both twins in an identical twins’ pair, then the genes will be involved. This is because the identical twins share the same DNA and the twin studies that conducted by Singh showed that if one of the member of identical twin has Schizophrenia, then there is a 30-50% chances that another member of identical twin also will have Schizophrenia as well.

Furthermore, study that conducted by Singh also shows that most of the informative feature of Schizophrenia is that it is runs in the family, so it is also known as family influences. For example, if one of the members in the family such as mother or father that has Schizophrenia, then there is a higher risk of chances to get Schizophrenia.

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder which could be affected by genetic factors (Kirov, Donovan & Owen, 2005). The Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) is one of the methods that to identify the associations between genetic regions and traits. The participants from the studies are people who diagnosis with Schizophrenia and people without Schizophrenia, or they may be both people diagnosis with Schizophrenia (Uezato, Kimura-Sato, Yamamoto, Lijima, Kunugi & Nishikawa, 2012). GWAS use a DNA chip to identify genotype alleles which the participants have. The chromogranin B (CHGB) is come from the chromogranin gene. For the result reported as 72% of Schizophrenia people have the CHGB genes (Uezato et al., 2012). It might have the possible to prove that Schizophrenia is come from genetic factor.

According to the researchers David and his colleagues (2003) from Howard Hughes Medical Institute, they decided to further examine the possible involvement of Calcineurin malfunctions on schizophrenia causes by directly measure for genetic association of Calcineurin-correlated candidate genes with schizophrenia (David et al., 2003). Calcineurin is a calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is highly expressed in the CNS (David et al., 2003). Calcineurin contains of a heterodimer composed of a regulatory subunit, CNB, and a catalytic subunit, CNA (Gurling et al, 2001). There are three different CNA isoforms encoded by distinct genes (Straub et al, 2002). Calcineurin activity plays a key role in the downstream regulation of dopaminergic signal transduction and in the induction of certain forms of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity (Straub et al, 2002). Thus, purpose of calcineurin comprise a serious link between dopaminergic and glutamatergic wigwag (Straub et al, 2002). Researchers prioritized examination of genes by analyze 200 US citizen that affected by schizophrenia (Straub et al, 2002). Researchers present direct genetic evidence for association of the PPP3CC gene with schizophrenia (Straub et al, 2002).

According to Newly Science (2014) it stated that researchers demonstrate that nature can affect nurture. Researcher, Plomn have proposed the view of passive influence in which genetic influences on parental behavior can create a specific environment which their children are raised. For instance, parents that have genetically influenced mental illness (schizophrenia) may create an unstable home environment where they may deliver contradictory information to their children such as double bind theory (Scarletmoonmagic, 2016). In short, maybe is not the genes of the children inherit and causing the schizophrenia but perhaps it is the genes of the parents that changed the environment in what the parents create for their children (Scarletmoonmagic, 2016). This shows that these perspectives can also demonstrate the possible interaction between nature and nurture and demonstrate that nature can affect nurture (Scarletmoonmagic, 2016).

In conclusion, we may conclude that Schizophrenia mostly due to genetic factors such as influence by the parents, family inheritance and so on. According to all the research study that we researched on, research shows that there are also not only does gene need to exist but the type of environment one grows up and make it more high percentage in a person to get Schizophrenia.

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