As different researcher stated that, when land converted from forestry to farmland result lowering of carbon due to intensive soil disturbance. Muktar stated converting plantation to cropland invariably caused loss up to 20 to 50% soil carbon. 59% losses by adaptation of pasture to farmland (Muktar et al. , 2018). when cropland is converted into natural vegetation, SOC will accumulate (Muktar et al. , 2018). Many studies have shown carbon deposited in farmland has declined drastically because farmland typically reduce Carbon by removing major fractions of photo synthetically fixed C as produce, consequently returning only minor volume plant litter on soil. However, conservation farming contributes soil Carbon sink through manipulating the conditions because C stocks mainly determined by C inputs. Another researcher in Bilaspur District of Achanakmar researcher was set up to estimate and compare SOC in diverse land habits viz. the highest SOC stock found in upper 0-20 cm, followed 20-50 cm and least in 50-100 cm. (Tiwari and Iqbal, 2015).
In my view or observation from different literature like FAO 2010 projected, world’s forestry hold 289 Gt of carbon alone but because morphological age, diverse flora have unlike storing capability. For example Cavanaugh stated, forest store around 110 tons carbon per hectare in tropical zone, on other hand temperate plantations cover carbon averaging 70 tons per hectare. This variation is due to high species variety generally cover more carbon than temperate or tropical plantations, averaging more than 180 tons per hectare (Cavanaugh et al. , 2014).
As many scientists stated, mechanized farming system used fertilizer and machine, which used diesels fusel, operate cultivation activities, which produce air pollutant. According to Robert stated, increment in aeration soil and intense disturbance are main issues stimulating mineralization of carbon by soil micro-organisms(Robert, 2001). Assessment show, farmland particularly conservation farming and agroforestry refers capacity of farmlands to remove carbon dioxide from atmosphere. Ability of agricultural lands store or sequester carbon depends on several factors like vegetation cover, farming system practices (Pathak, 2012). Mostly intensively managed farmlands offer a lot of opportunities to improve cultivation practices, nutrient and fit objectives.
As Tiwari, Iqbal stated that, farmland sink about 0. 75-1Pg C/yr which accounts about 50% of the 1. 6-1. 8 Pg C/yr lost due to elimination of vegetation (Tiwari, Iqbal, 2015). Wide variation C sequestration under diverse land habits that recommended management practices throughout world (Lal, 2008). Sequestration at different agricultural practices may approximate: zero tillage 100 – 1000, use of cover crops 50−250, manuring 50 − 150, mixed farming 50 − 200, and agroforestry 100 − 200 kg C per ha per yr. (Ratnayake, Kugendren and Gnanavelrajah, 2014).
Carbon stock in grazing land use typeAs I understand from different review, grassland has significant carbon value like forest which play main role in carbon sink. Firstly, grasslands occupy billions hectares (Rimhanen et al. , 2016). In addition, they store from 200 to 420 Pg from total ecosystem. As Rimhanen stated, grassland is estimated 70 t ha-1, similar to quantities stored in forestry lands. Owing to unreliability the data, FAO statistics no longer give area of grasslands. Many grassland areas in tropical zones, dry lands badly managed besides degraded; Main solution used under managing pastures and introduce more productive with deeper root and resistant to degradation (Bezabh, Tadesse and Shiferaw, H. and Gebremedhin, 2015).
Many emerging states, like Africa, most people live in countryside that depends on land for its livelihood. This rural people are now developing quickly, resulting series effects on resource base. In My literature assessment, I understand, carbon contain affected due to change of the system like forest contributed decline soil carbon. (Alepa, Rajashekhar Rao, 2016). C as well as N contents declined dramatically after 16 years of continuous farming and high correlation between C, N and base actions in forest soils (Muktar et al. , 2018). Plantation cover, known to reduce soil loss by intercepting, dissipating raindrops, wind energy. Under this situation, lowest erosion recorded undisturbed forests, ranging from 0. 004 to 0. 5 t/ha per year (Nigatu, 2014). Due to Land use change in Ethiopia that average annual soil loss of 100 tons/ha per year, Average annual local movement soil is projected to be 7,800 million tons per year from farmland (Itanna et al. , 2011).
Challenges faced people related with change of forest to settlement, infrastructure, mining, farmland which provide environmental pollution, including nitrous oxide which, altering hotness, flooding, unseasonal rain, drying water body, pest, diseases, change precipitation pattern. This review was involved diverse land type mainly: forestry, farming and grazing land. After reading literature related to title I combined, organized systematically. From my assessment, I aware that, Earth’s air is miniscule associated oceans, soils, and geologic formations like carbon stored in farm comparing to store in forestry or woodland. Forestry change in to farm releases large quantities greenhouse gas in to air, But relatively little effect on current CO2 sequestration in land ecosystems, unless the changing method leads to soils losses, lacking vegetation, or to jungles of concrete and asphalt without active photosynthesis.
Carbon stock in diverse carbon pools has potential minimizing of enrichment of atmospheric concentration CO2. Carbon stock of varies land type in above or belowground carbon showed a decreasing trend with increasing elevations. Bulk density values were increased with the increasing depths among all land uses. But, the reverse was true for percent of SOC. The SOC of forestland use contained more than grazing as well as farming.
Generally, different study reveals that land use type change mainly affects the organic carbon stock biomass and soil. Globally, world’s forests store 289 Gt carbon in their biomass alone estimated and grasslands store from 200 to 420 Pg in the whole ecosystem in other side farmland sequester 0. 75-1Pg C/yr and accounts about 50% of the 1. 6-1. 8 Pg C/yr lost due to removal of forest and other farming activities. Due to Land use change in Ethiopia that average annual soil loss of 100 tons/ha per year, the average annual local movement of soil is projected to 7,800 million tons per year from the farmland and grazing lands.
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