Please note! This essay has been submitted by a student.
One of the meat products that is gaining popularity and is present in the diet of different cultures is sausage. This is because of its convenience, variety and low-cost. Sausage preparation for consumption require relatively short time, and in some cases, it only needs to be warmed (Mercadante, Capitani, Decker & Castro, 2010).
However, a ‘‘negative’’ health image has been associated with meat products such as the frankfurter type of sausage due to its high fat content as well as undergoing lipid oxidation (Con, Extracto, Yeni, Diego & Jairo, 2011). The disruption of muscle cell membranes during processing facilitates the interaction of unsaturated lipids with pro-oxidant substances that results in deterioration and rancidity.
Lipid oxidation leading to off-flavour development in meat and its products is one of the primary causes of their quality deterioration. Metabolites from lipid oxidation have been suggested to be carcinogenic, and thus, detrimental to human health (Min, Nam & Cordray, 2008; Trindade, Mancini-Filho & Vil-lavicencio, 2010). Also, lipid oxidation affects the colour of both raw and processed meat due to the conversion of oxymyoglobin to metmyoglobin (Jo, 1999).
In the sausage industry, synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA), propyl gallate (PG) and citric acid are commonly used to control lipid oxidation. Nevertheless, meat products processed with synthetic antioxidants have been found to have severe health implications, and has increased consumer anxiety and created demand for the use of natural antioxidants. So, in recent years, much attention has been paid to develop meat and meat products with physiological functions to promote health conditions and reduce the risk of diseases.
Potential of plant extracts as antioxidants in meat and its products are being considered . Con et al., 2011, example, reported that use of annatto and cherry extracts as sources of carotenin comminuted meat products reduces production. Carrot, widely consumed, is a good source of phytonutrients and natural antioxidants. Therefore, carrots may be a good alternative to synthetic antioxidants used in meat products such as sausage. In Ghana, the orange coloured variety is the one commonly consumed; but other colours exist (citation).
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant properties of orange carrot puree in frankfurter sausages through the measurement of pH, acid value (AV), free fatty acid percentage (FFA), iodine value (IV) and peroxide value (PV), and to also assess the effect of orange carrot puree on the sensory characteristics of the frankfurter sausages on the first day of product formulation, and the 7th and 14th day of storage.
Beef (3 Kg) and fat (1 Kg) used for the frankfurter formulation were obtained from the Meat Processing Unit of the Animal Science Department of University for Development Studies, Nyankpala Campus. The meat was vacuum packed using a table top vacuum packer (Telleres Rammon, Spain) and stored in a deep freezer at -18oC (except samples that were used on day zero for both sensory and chemical analysis) until it was used. The meat was thawed before used. Vacuum-packed boneless meat (7 Kg of beef and 3 Kg of pork fat) was obtained from the Meat Processing Unit of the Animal Science Department of University for Development Studies, for the formulation of sausage samples. Meat for sausage samples that were not formulated on the first day was stored in a deep freezer at -18oC.
Fresh orange carrot vegetable roots were obtained from the local market in Tamale, Northern region of Ghana. About 1 Kg of carrots was washed thoroughly, peeled, sliced and blended () for 30 seconds with the addition of 5 ml of water to form puree.
Three different samples of frankfurter sausages were prepared. The first, T1 was formulated with 6 g of vitamin C according to the traditional formula, to serve as the control sausage samples, and consisted of the following ingredients: 3 Kg of meat (70% boneless beef + 30% pork fat), curing salt (45 g), polyphosphate (15 g), red chillies (1.5 g), white pepper (3 g), black pepper (3 g) and “adobo” (6 g). Samples of T2 and T3 were formulated using the same ingredients with the addition of orange carrot puree at 5% and 10% for T2 and T3, respectively. However, vitamin C was excluded from T2 and T3. Sausages were prepared as described by Heinz and Hautzinger (2007) and stuffed into fine casings, twisted, smoked for 45 minutes, and scalded in hot water to core temperature of 70oC. The samples were then cooled in cold water, hung on racks for adhering water to drain and vacuum packaged after which they were stored in a refrigerator at -18 oC until all analysis were conducted on the first day of product production, and on the 7th and 14th day of storage.
Each chemical analysis was done in duplicate at the Food Science Laboratory of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana. All reagents used were of analytical grades. Determination of total polyphenol content, pH, acid value (AV), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV,) and iodine value (IV). The concentration of the total phenols was determined using the Folin Ciocalteu colorimetric method described by Rojas et al. (2008). The pH values of different beef sausage samples were determined according to the method described by Defreitas, Sebranek, Olson, & Carr (1997) as follows: a known weight of beef sausage sample (10 g) was blended with 20 ml distilled water and the pH of the slurry was measured using a pH meter (CRISON, Basic 20, Spain). The acid value of the product was determined according to the A.O.A.C method (2001) whiles the free fatty acid percentage was calculated using the acid value as follows: % Free Fatty Acid = Acid value x 0.503. Peroxide and iodine values were determined according to the A.O.A.C method (2001).
Sensory evaluation was conducted on frankfurter sausages according to the method described by British Standard Institution (BSI, 1993). Samples of T1, T2 and T3 were examined for their colour, aroma, taste, texture and overall acceptability on the first day of samples preparation and on the 7th and 14th day of storage. A total of 40 panelists were selected from undergraduate students in the University for Development Studies, Nyankpala Campus-Ghana and trained according to the British Standard Institution guidelines (BSI, 1993). A total of 35 panelists consisting of 18 females and 17 males were finally selected for the sensory evaluation of frankfurter products.
On the first day of sausage production, the products were grilled in an electric oven (Turbonfan, Blue seal, UK) to a core temperature of 105 0C for 45 minutes, sliced into 2 cm thickness, wrapped with coded aluminium foil, and presented to the panelists under conditions of controlled lightening. Panelists were provided with water to serve as a neutralizer in between products. The panelists were also provided with content validated questionnaire to evaluate the products using a five-point category scale as described by Teye et al. (2015). The same procedure was done on the 7th and 14th day of storage however, stored samples allowed to thaw for three hours under normal room temperature before grilling.
The data obtained were analyzed using General Linear Model (GLM) of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of Minitab (17th edition). Where significant differences were found, and the means were separated using Tukey Pair Wise comparison at 5% significance.