Science is interwoven with society, as society evolves science follows suit. An idea best expressed by Albert Einstein, who stated, “Science is nothing but the refinement of everyday thinking”. His wisdom explains how every day, new hypotheses, observations and conclusions are brought to light that contradict or expand on one’s previous knowledge.
Science is always subject to adjustment in the light of new observations. These new observations are derived from evolving hypotheses and understandings, with new technologies emerging that allow humanity to unveil, never before, fathomable parts of the universe. New observations are acquired from developing hypotheses and understandings. The case study “Detection of Black Holes: The Power of Robust Theory and Mathematics” encompasses this idea. It illustrates how despite the repeated appearances of black holes, primarily in Albert Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity, a robust black hole was at the time unfathomable in the scientific community due to instinctual defence. When infinities in astronomical equations occurred, they were believed to be the result of an error, however, eventually, many scientists acquired Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity and applied it to their understandings to create new hypotheses in hopes of solving when singularities were present in his equation. For example, in 1916, Karl Schwarzschild read Einstein’s famous paper and applied his thoughts to create new ideas, and hypothesized Schwarzschild’s radius, which explains the crunch of gravity on a star. However, his equation also formed a singularity.
Many more of humanity’s most elite minds in the field of astronomy and physics, such as Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar and Arthur Eddington, who derived astronomical equations, became familiar with singularities, and in the light of newly developed ideas, they agreed that black holes, were indeed, tangible celestial bodies found in the night sky. This revolutionized and completely evolved the astrological field of science. The idea of black holes had been disputed between astronomy’s greatest minds for the past 60 years had finally come to a conclusion due to development of new hypothesis and observations. As the understanding of the natural world has developed, the emergence of new technologies have supported these developments, and allowed the study of things from the astronomically large to the infinitesimally small. They accurately acquire information unperceivable by man due to harsh conditions that had previously been an inhibiting factor when attempting to obtain new information. Michelle Kunimoto’s seminar “Finding Earth 2.0” expands on this idea. She claimed how Kepler revolutionized astrological science. Kepler’s data of exoplanets brought forth the discovery 2,237 new exoplanets, 29 of which have the possibility to sustain life. Kepler itself has discovered 77% of all exoplanets. Prior to this, humanity did not have the adequate technology to discover these celestial bodies. Without new technologies such as Kepler in the astrological field and other new technologies in their respected fields the scope of information obtained would be much less. Considering new technologies are constantly being developed; we are continuously expanding the scope of human knowledge as new technologies bring forth new observations.
Science is not immune to the scrutiny and correction brought by new hypotheses and observations. New understandings acquired by continuously changing hypotheses and new forms of technology that unravel new observations form part of the explanation why science is in a constant state of evolution. Einstein stated that every day is a new chance for another refinement in everyday thinking; theories held in the highest regard today may be contradicted by those in the near future. The very nature of science is its tendency towards change, and thus it will infinitely evolve.
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