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Security Issues Facing Somalia

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Below are the key security issues facing Somalia and hindering its progress:


Somalia has undergone grotesque forms of terrorism from terrorist group al-Shabaab, which was formed in 2006. It has since spread its operations into Kenya in the south and has claimed the lives of many Kenyans through grenade attacks and shootings. Somali militants have been fighting the al-Shabaab insurgency, but it is evident that help from allies is crucial to defeating the terrorist group. The network is heavily active and recruitment is taking place under the nose of security agents in Kenya in parts of Lamu, Kwale, Mombasa, Tana River, Malindi, Nairobi and other major towns.

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The Somali government cannot fight al-Shabaab on its own and certainly needs help from neighbouring countries such as Ethiopia, Eritrea and Kenya. Increased cohesion and joint forces will effectively see to it that al-Shabaab is completely exterminated.

Somalia should invest in military and police intelligence so that they are able to monitor any suspect behaviour and stop perpetrators before they attack. Provide a conducive environment for youth in terms of jobs and other activities that can keep them far away from being approached by militants attempting to radicalise them.

Train their police force and military how to handle a terrorist attack and at the same time, educate the people to be vigilant and report any suspect behaviour to officials

Political Instability

In Somalia there is no effective national government that can provide basic services. Other than the collection of very limited duties and taxes, little formal fiscal policy is in place. In 2014 Prime Minister Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed was removed from office, following a feud with President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud over a cabinet reshuffle. Ahmed was the second prime minister voted out within a year.

Marred by violence, greed and a tonne of corruption, many Somalis have had to flee to neighbouring countries to find refuge and live a life free from all the turmoil they have been exposed to. Solutions to the country’s problems still seem to be far in the horizon, but below are a few suggestions: Guarantee formal and informal education for young people, channelling their power and energy into learning and development. Acknowledge and include young people as stakeholders in the process of peace and security building, bearing in mind that they are both affected by conflict and the key to a progressive nation. Eliminate the catalysts of conflict, including those related to economic challenges (youth unemployment) and the political exclusion of the youth.

Food Insecurity

Millions of Somalis face a huge deficit as far as food and nutrition is concerned, this being largely due to the fact that there are no proper agricultural practices and the people largely rely on aid from donors. The climate in major parts of Somalia is not really conducive for farming of a wide variety of food crops, thus leaving the people with very narrow options for diet and thus leading to high levels of malnutrition.

An estimated 731,000 people remain in “crisis” and “emergency”, according to the latest findings from the Food Security and Nutrition Analysis Unit for Somalia (FSNAU). A further 2.3 million additional people are classified as “stressed”, meaning they are struggling to meet their minimum daily food needs.

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Education on how to use various resources economically especially during agriculture when it comes to issues of farming one can economically use water on various crops that require minimum intake of water for growth. The leadership of the country to solve its problem fast, so that the Somali people can return to their land and build their lives. Security and peace keeping missions could intervene to help return peace to Somalia; this would help bring down food prices once more.

The various solutions mentioned for each country is applicable everywhere, they are not unique solutions as these challenges are not unique to the aforementioned countries. Establishing food security is important for millions of people facing hunger in Africa and is crucial for sustainable economic development and long-term prosperity of the continent. Addressing food security in a changing climate, therefore, is key for a rising Africa in the 21st century.

All African countries must merge together to combat terrorism as it will take enormous effort in terms of manpower and finances to completely wipe out any terrorist groups and also important would be to protect youth from radicalisation.

Food security, which is the number one millennium development goal, is still a dream for many a people, but hopefully will be realised, however, that effort lies solely with the leadership efforts of those in power.

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