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Mesopotamia had rich valleys. Tigris and Euphrates Rivers were the main rivers. It was prone to river flooding which deposited silt causing fertile soil. Mesopotamia was known as the “fertile crescent”. They grew things like wheat and barley.
One of the main religions for Mesopotamia was polytheistic. But also, eventually singular God religions formed also. Jehovah was of God of Israelites. Pantheon of Gods for the Canaanites. The people had built pyramid like structures to please the “Gods”. Priests were very powerful leaders. Each of the Mesopotamian cities were ruled by a king. They had organized armies. They used written laws from the king. One of the main tribes was the mountain tribe was called Akkadians. Sargon was the first king of Sumer. Akkadian was the dominant language. Eventually developed cities and states. One way they kept track of records and laws was with the cuneiform. Known as the cradle of civilization. Sumerians were the first inhabitants. Most people were farmers and metal workers. The area where Sumer was located was the start of what we consider urban society. They were known for inventing the wheel. Discovered precious metals and welding. Which inspired tools and improve transportation. Came up with a 60 numerical arrangement. Inspired the now day calendar.
The Egyptian civilization was located along the Nile River. South of the Mediterranean Sea and West of the Red Sea. Tropical rains poured into the Nile causing flooding and spreading of silt. Sahara Desert located on both sides. Religious belief in Egypt was Polytheistic.
2686-2180 BCE Pyramids were introduced to honor the dead and help them pass into the next life. Politics and religion intertwine in the power formation. For a limited time Smenhotep IV began Monotheism by worshiping his personal God as primary God. Separate city-states viewed their local God as supreme. Mummification was highly used to preserve the dead. Egyptian political make-up was known for the formation of permanent unified kingdoms.
King Narmer took over both kingdoms creating unity for Egypt. Memphis would become the capital of Egypt. Egypt was mostly merchant class. It was popular to trade copper and precious stones. They used horse-drawn chariots. They were very artistic and forged weapons and jewelry out of different types of metals.
India The Indus and Ganges Rivers create the peninsula of India. Random flooding and Monsoons were common. Indus Valley (floodplain), and the Arabia Sea is the southern boundary. People in India believed that every natural thing has a soul. Main God was Indra (God of war) which controlled weather and agriculture. Vedic and Dravidian eventually combined. Most of the people believed in reincarnation. Siddhartha also known as Buddha-originally born into privilege and seclusion ventured out to see the reality of society and realized truth that was the birth of Buddhism.
Caste system assisted with the political system because most of the time there was no main leader. Caste system appointed who would and could have control. India’s people utilize Sanskrit-writing. The crops grown included wheat, cotton, sesame seeds, dates and peas. India had a vast variety of animals which included water-buffalo donkeys, goats and monkeys. Some difficult things included to wet soil made it hard to find historical artifacts. Citadels believed to be a person of high power in the home. Community Pools for taking a bath were or religious ceremonies were in the middle of town. Very complex water and sewer systems were in place in the towns. Caste system- divided people based on social status upon birth status.
Geographical features in China are the Himalayas, Yellow River, and Yangtze River. Also, dense woods and mountains made China secluded. Rich soil called loess made ease of tilling. A drawback is that it was prone to erosion from flooding. China believed in the Mandate of Heaven which gave the emperor power and allowed them to rule. After years Confucianism won out. Women held less power in the household then men. They were required to be maid-like and devout to spouse. China had organized armies. Chinas pollical system was feudal.
One ruler named Yu, gained power from his father’s knowledge on how to cease the flooding issue. fighting between emperors made China weak. Legalism-believe instinctively people are to into themselves and broken- discipline was the way of handling this. China mostly used water for agriculture. rice, millet, wheat, and barley. They used a method called bone writing/symbols. They had many uses for metals like sacred drinkware, tools, weapons and farm equipment.