Table of Contents
- Problem Statement
- Desiging and Implemantation of Car Parking System of FPGA
- Automated Car Parking Management System
- Automatic Car Parking System Using IR Sensors
- Smart Car Parking
- Solution and Scope of the Project
- Block Diagram
- Definition of Concepts
- Tasks to Be Done In Order to Solve the Problem
- List of References
In recent years all over the world the manufacture of cars has increased daily which leads to the requirement of parking system.  There is a great demand if of innovative parking system which should meet the requirements depending on the country around the world, with maximum advantages and minimum disadvantage. There are different types of parking system some constructed underground and others on top level of the building.
This leads to the concept of Smart Parking System that is implemented to represent a prototype system that can be applied in any place around the world, the purpose is to limit the pollution caused in parking areas. The increase in number of cars imposes a very problematic situation for the road management system. The biggest problem in each country is the search of parking space which tends to lead into roadblocks , the road blocks will cause the pollution of the emission of gases in each car in the road, these are significant higher in urban area where to many cars travel daily.
When a car travels at a slower speed which happened during parking, the fuel coming out from the exhaust is not fully burnt hence the polluting the environment nearby and the bigger problem faced by the whole wide world is the GHG which tend to affect the climate change all over the world. The users who own cars also want to know the remaining parking space before reaching to the parking location and the motivation is to complement existing systems to reduce the cost and gas emission , as the name of the project suggest Smart(innovative way) Parking System which is automated.
All over the world, as the manufacture of vehicles increases and road users, hence everyone is facing difficulties in locating a parking spot in a parking area. The Smart Parking System has been a problem for many years and also had been implemented for different type prototypes which lead to solution of the problem and being called by different names which suited the researcher’s idea and thesis of the problem. Smart car Parking Using PLC and SCADA. The car parking system was implemented by PLC and SCADA towards solving the problems they faced in parking areas such as mall and reserved parking .
Their aim was to limit the wastage of time looking for a vacant spot in parking area, in their project the main focused in reserved parking hence the use of SCADA and RFID which everyone coming in or out of the parking need to have a access card or tag for identification and to get fully used of parking space. They make use of Allan Bradley PLC which is used for programming the whole system. The LEDs are used LED are used to indicate to the user the parking slot and DC motors used to open the barrier gate to the parking area.  In their project the used proximity sensors for object detection of object in their case cars and they did not specify which type of sensor they used but said “deferent proximity targets demand deferent sensors” for example, photo-electric sensors might be suitable for plastic objects.
Desiging and Implemantation of Car Parking System of FPGA
The project was built because of the rapid increase in the number of cars, this increase causes a problem in traffic congestion, and population (car and noise).  They overcome these problem factors stated above by FPGA base parking system was proposed and it is implemented using finite state machine modelling.The system have two modules, Identification module and slot checking module, the prototype was the designed with various interfacing, sensors, steeper motors and LCD display.
The basic operation of the prototype was that if a car is entering the parking lot, the LCD should display the space available and the cars that have been located already, if there is space then the steeper motor should open the gate to the parking area and LED used to locate the car where to park.
RF MODULE – The component has been used to transmit and receives the availability information.
IR SENSORS – Used to detect the presence of a car in a slot. The project in the ways that it has been proposed suits and relates to the project intended to be done, it only differs in some aspect of implementation and the components used.
Automated Car Parking Management System
The proposed project was based on a research in Mindanae-state university, this was done because of the safety problems and to increase the quality of parking system while reducing the labour costs meaning cutting down the human interacting in the parking lot making it fully automated  The project they first implemented with a prototype design in which they had LCD, Seven Segment display, LEDs, Servo motor, Optical Character Recognition(OCR) and Coin Counter Module . The main aim of the system is to fully maximize the parking lot security, the system is based on entrance and exit points which are located I different sports at the entrance.
They use two Seven Segment displays which show the number of cars in the parking lot and the other one is for the number of spot available and OCR is used for plate number recognition of each car . The system uses LED for space recognition while helps the car user to locate parking spot by glowing and the spot are not prioritised but glow in sequence form. The system is base in Micro-controller which is the brain of the automated system and activates the servo motors at the entrance and exit points depending on reading of the LDR sensor , and the Coin counter is position at the exit point to pay the parking amount base on the time spent in parking Ø Micro-controller – They use PIC18F4550 Ø LDR SENSOR- They were used for object detection, once the LDR is activated it sends a signal to the Micro-controller which then execute the payment system.
Automatic Car Parking System Using IR Sensors
The main purpose of the project is to atomize the car parking and to provide the exact location of free space where they should park. This was due to the increase of cars and wastage of time looking for place to park and they have reviewed the existing models of parking systems which used WSN, RFID methods. But these system had setbacks which they only provided the availability of space not the exact location to park To overcome these problems face by the devices mentioned they implemented the solution using IR sensors.
The system makes use of micro-controller (AT89C52) and IR sensor to identify the car entering the park. LCD used provided to display the space availability and number of cars that have occupied the spots. The simple operation of the system is that whenever a car comes to the entrance there is a pair of IR sensors located to send signal to the MCU to open the gate by the rotating the steeper motor The gate will only close once the car has passed the second IR sensor so that the micro-controller can know if the car left the gate or not and use the buzzer to signal the car to move in.
Smart Car Parking
The project was developed based on the major problem faced by the cities all over the world which is Ecosystem and to reduce this they proposed a Smart Car Parking system which will reduce the production of pollution. By pollution they mean that as the cars drive slowly looking for a parking slot it produces much more fuel in the exhaust that is not completely burnt. To overcome this, they had to implement a solution which includes, Barriers, Alarm System, Slots and Priorities. The proposed solution work as, if there is a car entering the parking space it will be stopped by the Barrie.
The Barrie act as a control of the parking area , once the car is inside wit will be allocated a slot based on priority automatically. The priority is based on the nearest spot from the entrance point  and the car will be parking on the slot which has an on LED and turned off once the car occupies. If the parking lot is full the Barrier will not open. The system uses an Arduino Mega Micro-controller  which controls the Barrie gate base in the signal received from the approximate sensors.
The project shows a better and interesting way of implementation of problem solution which is based on their specific problem and what they intended to do. But does not quite meet the requirements of the project scope because the is no display of the number of cars occupying the parking area there does not communicated with the users but let them get disappointed by not opening the barrier gate. In overall conclusion it’s a good project which can be enhance to meet the required stand of a solution with less disadvantages.
Solution and Scope of the Project
The project is Smart Parking System (SPS), as the name suggest a smart convenient way of parking. The project aim is to eliminate the problem state above. The project will consist of four parking lots this is for demonstration purposes the project can be implemented as a bigger model but that will be time consuming as there are many factors of work to be completed to produce a final product, programming the MCU, hardware configuration and model to build up. In the project since its broad project there had to be some assumptions which led to the proper solution of the project, there should be no cars entering and exiting on the same time and no human may walk toward the barrier gate as the ultra-sonic sensor will detect human as car coming in or out and opens the barrier gate.
There will be no priority in terms of the car being located nearest to the entrance point, they will be allocated spots on sequential manner (1-4). Project scope:
- Indication of space availability.
- It will direct where to park (show slot).
- Provide one way, Entrance and Exit point.
- Give indication if the parking area is full or Not.
- Servo motor- it will be used to open the barrier gate for both Entrance and exit points.
- Ultra-sonic- Will work as object detector at both points.
- IR sensor- This will be use as a car detector at the parking slots for occupation or not (four sensors will be used).
- LCD-display- It will display the parking area occupancy details and space availability.
- LED- Used to show the user where to park the car.
- MCU STM32F- This is the brain of the project, which will be used to store software, and for the operation of the project.
- The car approaches the parking area and stooped by the barrier gate.
- The first ultra-sonic sensor will pick up the car and send signal to the MCU to active servo motor to opens the barrier gate.
- The barrier gate will only close once the car passes the second ultra-sonic sensor.
- Then based on initial start of the parking system the car will be allocated from 1-4. LED 1 will turn on, based on the IR sensor detection of the car it will turn off signalling occupied.
- The LCD will increment, or decrement based in entrance and exit points, it will show cars in and space left.
Definition of Concepts
- OCR – Optical character Recognition
- LED -Light Emitting Diode
- DC – Direct current
- RFID -Radio frequency identification
- SPS- Smart Parking System
- LCD- Liquid Crystal Display
- MCU-Micro-Controller unit
- IPS-intelligence parking system
- FPGA- Field Programmable Gate Array
- IR sensor- Infrared sensor
- WSN- Wireless Sensor Network
- SCADA- Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System
Tasks to Be Done In Order to Solve the Problem
- Hardware design
- Looking of components in hardware
- Calculating cost of components
- Purchasing components
- Programming MCU
- Interfacing components with MCU
- Design model
- Build model
- Installation of all project components
- Testing if works on model
List of References
- D. Vatsala, B. Perit, J. Laxay, and N. Nalini “Smart Car Parking System,” International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, vol. 6, no. 5, 2016.
- R. Elvarasi and P. K. Senthikumar. (18 March 2017, 9). Smart Car Parking.
- K. Yeji and j. Dyeon, “Automated Parking lot Management System using embedded Robot Type Smart car base on Wireless Sensors,” International Telecommunication Networks and Application Conference(ITNAC), 2017.
- C. Agrawal, B. Abhay, and K. A. M. A. Verma, “Smart Car Parking Using PLC and SCADA,” International Journal for Research in Technological Studies, vol. 3, no. 6, May 2016.
- R. Kaur and B. singh, “Designing and implementation of car parking system of FPGA,” International journal of VLSI design and Communication (VLSICS), vol. 4, no. 3, 2013,june.
- J. P. Fabros, “Automated Car Park Management System,” IOP Conference Series : Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 79, 2015.
- A. M. B. Ramya Sri, G.Gowry Naga Sravanthi, D.Drona Akshay Kumar, CH, “Automatic car parking system using IR sensor,” vol. 7, no. 4, 2017.