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Soil Salinity: a Serious Environmental Issue and Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria

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Salinity is one of the significant issues which ultimately leads towards loss of yield among important crops. For all significant crops, average harvests are a fraction – anywhere amongst 20% and 50% of record yields; these losses are because of drought and high soil salinity. A wide range of strategies is needed to manage with such effects. There is a requirement to develop biological methods for salinity stress management that are simple and low cost. There is a range of plants recognized as glycophytes, which are salt sensitive and generally, our major crops are glycophytic in nature. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a biennial herb belongs to Apiaceae family and has higher medicinal values and as a seasoning as well as garnish agent in food industry. It can grow dynamically in a harsh environment with the scarcity of nutrients. Although P. crispum has been explored widely for its medicinal values. Thus, in current study effect of NaCl (Control, 25-, 50-, – and 100-µM) concentrations on the root/shoot length, fresh/dry weights, identification of the NHX1 has been purposed to investigate, while using hydroponic culture.

The commencement of the 21st epoch is manifested by the international shortage of the water, polluted environment and the salinization of soil as well as water. There are two intimidations for agronomic sustainability i.e., increase in human population and decrease inaccessible land. Soil salinity, mainly NaCl confines the growth and production of numerous crop plants. Higher concentration of NaCl in plants primarily induced osmotic and/or ionic pressures which finally lead to secondary stresses i.e., oxidative and related stresses. To survive with an unfavorable concentration of Na+, the plant uses diverse approaches to sustain a low level of the cytosolic Na+. These approaches comprise:

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  1. Reduced Na+ entrance in to plant cells
  2. Na+compartmentalization into the vacuole
  3. Efflux of the Na+ from root tip.

There are many genes (SOS1, NHX1, HKT1/2) which are involved in these metabolic activities and ionic homeostasis to enable the plant to withstand the higher Na+ concentrations in its surrounding environment.

Numerous antiporter genes Na+/H+ like NHX’s has been reported in glycophytes i.e. Arabidopsis thaliana. In salt stress state the levels of transcript for these genes or protein activity raised and so the activity of the Na+/H+ antiporter is upregulated. Despite these tolerance strategies, salt stress declines crop harvests and is leading to continuing harm of arable land. Such losses are compounded by the extra challenges that agriculture requires to offer enough diet for a world population that is swiftly increasing and which has a gradually increasing superiority of life.

In plant cells, there are two main aspects that sustain low cytoplasmic Na+ concentration in the plant’s cells are the NHX1 and NHX7. The NHX1 are important for Na+ detoxification through the sequestration of Na in the vacuole. The Constitutive overexpression of the NHX1 in different plants species led to enhanced plant salinity resistance. The NHX-type protein is crucial for cellular PH homeostasis as well as for K compartmentalization.

Vacuolar K+ as well as K+ transport from root to shoot through the overexpression of NHX1 in tomato, and it is beneficial because improved intracellular K+/Na+ ratios decrease Na+ pressure. accretion. Furthermore, the tomato LeNHX3 gene maps to QTL linked with leaf Na+ accretion. In cell growth and may be in vesicular trafficking, protein processing, as well as in cargo delivery, the endosomal NHX antiporters are critical. The endosomal transport proteins, NHXs, in the plant salt resistance are involved in controlling organelle pH as well as ion homeostasis. The loss of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) role does not change salinity resistance in Arabidopsis. By distinction, a decrease of V-ATPase action in trans-Golgi network gives rise to increased salt tolerance. The overexpression of vacuolar-type I H+-PPase AVP1 recovers the plant salt resistance by facilitating the vacuolar Na+ confiscation. NHXs are abundant to all eukaryotes is shown through the Phylogenetic and sequence analysis of existing plant genomes. Eight isoforms belonging to three classes are present in Arabidopsis; at the plasma membrane two different members are situated (SOS1/AtNHX7 and AtNHX8); and other intracellular isoforms that are either vacuolar (AtNHX1 to AtNHX4) or in vesicles (AtNHX5, AtNHX6). A usually known mode of NHX operation results in the passage of K+ or Na+ into the vacuole in exchange for H+efflux to the cytosol and Na+ efflux out of the cell in exchange for H+ influx into the cell. Crystallographic structures of plant NHXs are not available but biochemical and kinetic studies recommended that NHXs possibly contain 9-12 transmembrane domains. In Arabidopsis, the cloning and overexpression of AtNHX1 definitely proved the reputation of intracellular Na+compartmentalization for salt resistance.

In yeast Nhx1 where cytosolic and vacuolar pH were reformed and protein trafficking out of the Golgi Were blocked( Bret et al.,2005). In Arabidopsis, a function of vesicular/endosomal NHXs in endomembrane trafficking was primarily provided via the nhx5nhx6 double knockout. Golgi and trans-Golgi network in nhx5nhx6 were significantly more acidic than wild-type was indicated recently. These data suggest, that endosomal NHXs have a vital function in vesicle pH homeostasis that is crucial to trafficking.


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