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Spirituality And Health Education

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“Spirituality as a Predictive Factor for Signing an Organ Donor Card” is the quantitative study as researchers observe and examine phenomena using statistical and computational techniques. In order to reach the set goal, get the favorable outcome, and present accurate findings, Bortz, Ashkenazi, and Melnikov (2014) conducted descriptive cross-sectional survey. Research emphasizes objective measurements and analyzes data/information acquired through surveys and questionnaires. The purpose that the authors pursued when conducting this quantitative study is to examine attitude, life purpose, and role of spirituality in making decision to sign or not to sign organ donor cards. -Research question set by the authors of a study is “Is there a relationship between spirituality and life purpose and people’s attitude towards organ organization and signing an organ donor card?”.

Researchers have explored the following hypotheses: there is a difference in spirituality, life purpose, and attitude towards donating organs between those, who signed the card and those, who did not do that. Signing the card is associated with such aspects as spirituality, purpose set in the life, and one’s overall attitude towards such sensitive procedure as organ donation.

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Design of research is descriptive, cross-sectional survey. Researchers engaged 312 Israeli respondents in the study. Two hundred twenty individuals of the total number of participants involved in the study signed the organ donor card. Researchers consider such aspects as the participants’ access to the Internet, understanding Hebrew, and age. Respondents completed the web-based and paper questionnaire that consisted of such aspects as socio-demographic status, spiritual health, life purpose, and attitude towards the donation of organs after own death. The authors used descriptive statistics and various tests, analyzing the derived information through the logistic regression.

The study was based on online survey. It has limitations in terms of access and sampling. The majority of respondents had little computer experience, and, therefore, could not answer the questionnaire survey in the web format. There was also a limited access to the certain category of people as some individuals view their participation in the survey conducted online as an intrusion in their privacy. The level of truthfulness of respondents, who participated in research, was high. The main reason is that the Web administration ensured the high level of security of sensitive information. – Findings: individuals, who signed cards, had more purposes in life. They also treated the idea of donating organs after death in a more positive manner. Individuals, who did not sign a card, demonstrate a mean transcendental spirituality. Findings are important to better understand factors that affect one’s decision to engage in such sensitive procedure as organ donation and sign related cards. Researchers have revealed the direct association between the following aspects: avoidance to donate own organs after death, adherence to accepted norms, and religious beliefs.

The study “Health Education Needs of Incarcerated Women” is qualitative due to the fact that the researchers engaged focus groups in the discussion of issues and concerns that they face during the incarceration, namely the need for healthcare education among incarcerated females. In most cases, qualitative study is based on observations, individual interviews, and group discussions. The authors have chosen to explore the topic of healthcare education among imprisoners due to the high rate of incarceration (200, 000 females are currently incarcerated in the USA), recidivism, and uneducated females, who cannot properly address their healthcare concerns due to the lack of adequate education.

Research question set by the authors of a study is “Does health education play a decisive role in improving health of incarcerated females and what is the impact of such aspects as empowerment, respect, and trust on the final outcome?”. Female participants of research have been divided into two focus groups. The first one was housed in the facility of medium security, while another one- in the maximum-security facility. Dinkel and Schmidt (2014) applied comparison approach when acquiring necessary data from imprisoners. The authors made the following hypotheses: regular exercises and unlimited choice in nutrition are more likely to improve health of examined population; young imprisoners may require different approach towards addressing their basic health and education needs if compared to adult counterparts.

Design of research is naturalist and qualitative, and the sample used in the study is purposive. The first focus group involves eight females (aged 25-51). They are housed in the maximum-security building. The second focus group involves eight females (aged 22-48). They are housed in the building of medium security. Overall, six white, black females, and four Latinos participated in this naturalist and qualitative study. – Setting: Dinkel and Schmidt (2014) conducted research in the Midwestern state correctional facility for female imprisoners.

Findings: Women’s trust, respect, and empowerment are important factors that help make incarcerated women more educated. Particular attention is paid to their own health status. Staff and inmates are encouraged to establish a culturally competent environment, promote respect and control, maximize woman’s choice, and engage them in the resolution of the most pressing concerns. The study has clearly identified health education needs, and, therefore, they are more likely to be incorporated in healthcare practice, policies, and educational programs. Findings of a study have revealed that the meaningful education of incarcerated women and health promotion/disease prevention among this vulnerable group of people will help to significantly decrease the rate of recidivism among female population and significantly improve their health status.


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