Different Kinds of Nanoparticles and Additives


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Types of Nanoparticles and Additives

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is used as nanoparticle as additives in CIME. It is sent as nanofluid in various constituent level. Another additive used is Ethanox which is a good antioxidant. Various concentrations were added and tested.

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The biodiesel used to run the CI is Calophyllum Inophyllum Methyl Ester (CIME). The biodiesel added is 100% in CI engine. Various tests like combustion test, performance tests and emission tests were conducted and the results were analysed.

Techniques used to synthesis the nanoparticle

1. Preparation of ZnO

This nanoparticle was synthesized by precipitation method. 0.2M of zinc nitrate and 0.4M of potassium hydroxide were prepared with deionized water. This KOH is then slowly added to Zinc Nitrate slowly and stirred constantly. A white suspension is formed which is further stirred around 5000 rpm for 20 minutes. This precipitate is then washed with distilled water and alcohol and finally calcined at 500 0C.

2. Preparation of CIME samples using ZnO

To convert the nanoparticle into nanofluid the ZnO nanoparticle is dispersed into distilled water by ultra-sonification process. The metal oxide nanofluid is weighed precisely of 50 ppm and 100 ppm concentration levels. The liquid is subjected to ultra sonification around 50-60 KHz for 30 minutes. A milky white liquid is formed and is added to CIME and stirred at 1500 rpm. This converts the solution into emulsified fuel.

3. Preparation of CIME sample using ethanox

The ethanox which is an antioxidant is blended with pure biodiesel at various concentrations by ASTM standards. This was added at various concentration levels and added to CIME samples. Then it is stirred for 15 to 20 minutes at 1500 rpm which ensures uniform distribution of particles in the fuel.

Fuel Preparation

The fuel is prepared from the vegetable oil of seeds of Calophyllum Inophyllum plant. This oil is trans-esterified as the glyceride content is removed and can converted into alkyl ester by following processes.

1. Acid catalysed esterification process

2. Alkali catalysed esterification process

The oil is purified to remove the traces of methanol in ester by washing the final product CIME with distilled water and further heated to 750C.

‘*’ indicates approximate value obtained directly from the graph since no particular value was given

The maximum brake thermal efficiency if found in diesel and the minimum brake thermal efficiency is found in in CIME. The additives of Zn significantly increase the BTE of the biodiesel. The ethanox also increases the BTE but not as significant as Zn nanoparticle. The brake specific fuel consumption at approximately 7.5 bar shows maximum for CIME and less for diesel. The additives in biodiesel decreases the BSFC. The BSEC for CIME was maximum and minimum for diesel. The additives significantly decrease the BSEC.

‘*’ indicates approximate value obtained directly from the graph since no particular value was given

The maximum HC emission was found in diesel and CIME was slightly lesser than that. The addition of nanoparticles reduces the HC emission. CIME ZnO100 shows maximum HC emission reduction. Similarly, the CO emission was maximum for diesel and least for ZnO100. Addition of ETH in CIME has increased the CO emission. The NOx emission was maximum for CIME and lesser for CIME ETH500.

Combustion Characteristics

The peak pressure and peak heat release are determined. The maximum heat release and peak pressure was found maximum for diesel due to lower cetane number. CIME ETH200 and CIME ETH500 showed lesser peak pressure and lesser heat release rate.

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