Please note! This essay has been submitted by a student.
The age specific fecundity values of H. hebetor exposed to sub-lethal doses of either Vertimec, Proteus or Sirinol. All insecticides caused decrease in age specific fecundity in compared of the control. Other than control, in both contact and digestive assays, the highest age specific fecundity was recorded in wasps treated with Sirinol. Additionally, wasps treated with either Vertimec or Proteus exhibited shorter oviposition period than control, while the oviposition period was not affected by Sirinol.
The life expectancy (ex) of H. hebetor in response to contact exposure to insecticides. The numerical values for ex in contact assay were: 31.92, 33.03, 31.03, and 34.95 for wasps treated with Vertimec, Proteus, Sirinol, and control, respectively. Also, shows the life expectancy of wasps treated in digestive method with insecticides. The numerical values for ex were estimated at 24.85, 29.94, 33.84, and 35.88 for Vertimec, Proteus, Sirinol, and control treatments, respectively. The life expectancy of H. hebetor decreased in comparison with control as a result of both contact and digestive exposure to all insecticides.
The Mediterranean flour moth, E. kuehniella, and the Indian meal worm, P. interpunctella, are among the most serious pests of stored products in the Middle East including Iran. Such as Helicoverpa spp that are serious pests of different crops in southern Iran that caused economic damage on Pistachio and greenhouse plants. Varieties of techniques, such as physical, genetic and biological methods, have been developed as alternatives to chemical pesticides for control of these pests. Although used of these techniques are not expected to eradicate the pest population, decrease the dose of pesticide and replace them with the specific insecticide is necessary (Smith 2005). In this study, the sub-lethal effects of three insecticides on biological parameters of H. hebetor were investigated under laboratory conditions. Adult H. hebetor are strong fliers with large-scale searching ability and can simultaneously affect several species of stored product pests with respect to their wide host range (Strand et al. 1989). They are capable of penetrating into stored products and parasitizing wandering larva before adult emergence, potentially reducing the spread of moth infestations within a facility (Scholler 2010).
The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was determined as 0.220, 0.211, 0.227, and 0.231 (female/female/day) for wasps treated with sub-lethal concentration of Vertimec, Proteus, Sirinol, and control, respectively. These results indicate that the sub-lethal concentration of all insecticides have resulted in decreasing the rm of treated wasps. Consistent with these results, in a previous study the rm value of H. hebetor exposed to sub-lethal concentration of two Azadirachtin formulations (Neem Guard and BioNeem) and Cypermethrin was estimated at 0.16, 0.14, and 0.15 female offspring per female per day, respectively (Abedi et al. 2014) in comparison in control (0.18). In another study, the rm value of these wasps treated with sub-lethal concentration of Azadirachtin, Flonicamid, Thiacloprid and Thiocyclam was determined as 0.24, 0.23, 0.22, and 0.21 eggs per day, versus 0.26 eggs per day in control (Fooladi et al. 2015). Similarly, Rafiee-Dastjerdi reported a decrease in rm in H. hebetor when the wasps were treated with sub-lethal concentration of Indoxacarb, Imidacloprid, and Deltamethrin (Rafiee-Dastjerdi et al. 2012).
In the present study, a decrease in the finite rate of increase (λ) and the net reproductive rate (R0) of H. hebetor was observed following insecticide treatment. In accordance with these results, other authors have also reported decrease in these indices when the wasps were treated with insecticides (Amir-Maafi and Chi 2006; Rafiee-Dastjerdi et al. 2012; Abedi et al. 2014; Fooladi et al. 2015; Mahdvi et al. 2015). The mean generation time (T) values of H. hebetor in response to contact exposure to either Vertimec ®, Proteus® or Sirinol, compared to control were estimated at 18.10, 18.51, 19.76, and 19.22 days, respectively.
These results indicate that the generation time of H. hebetor was shortened in both Vertimec and Proteus treatments in comparison with control. Given that these insecticides did not affect the pre-adult development time of the wasp, a decrease in adult longevity may have contributed to shortened generation time. Similarly, to these results, Fooladi reported a significant decrease in the mean generation time of H. hebetor in response to exposure to either Azadirachtin, Flonicamid, Thiacloprid or Thiocyclam ( Fooladi et al. 2015). The age specific fecundity of H. hebetor was negatively affected by all insecticides that used in this research, compared with control. However, more intense effects were observed in wasps treated with Vertimec and Proteus Vertimec and Proteus decreased more than Sirinol the adult longevity of H. hebetor.
Altogether, the results of the current study indicate that sub-lethal concentration of three selected insecticides has negative effects on life table parameters of H. hebetor, the plant-derived insecticide, Sirinol®, have the less toxicity effects on H. hebetor by LC50 and HQ index (Table 1). Based on the results of this research and the low negative effects of Sirinol®on H. hebetor, Sirinol® can be recommended for controlling of leaf pest, such as Helicoverpa spp, in IPM programs.
Abedi Z, Saber M, Gharekhani GH, Mehrvar A, Kamita SG. 2014. Lethal and sub lethal effect of Azadirachtin and Cypermethtin on Habrobracon hebetor (Hymemoptera: Braconidae). J Econ Entomol. 107: 635-645.
Amir-Maafi M, Chi H. 2006. Demography of Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on two pyralid hosts (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Ann Entomol Soc Am. 99: 84-90.
Bayer Crop Science. 2016. Proteus. Retrieved From https://www.cropscience.bayer.co.nz/ products/insecticides/proteus.
Bell CH, Savvidou N. 1999. The toxicity of Vikane® (sulfuryl fluoride) to age groups of eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella). J Stored Prod Res. 35: 233-247.
Brower JH. 1990. Interaction of Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in suppressing stored product moth populations in small in shell peanut storages. J Econ Entomol. 83: 1096-1101.
Budnik LT, Kloth S, Velasco-Garrido M, Baur X. 2012. Prostate cancer and toxicity from critical use exemptions of methyl bromide: Environmental protection helps protect against human health risks . J Environ Health Sci Eng. 11: 5-9.
Burks CS, Yasin M, El-Shafie HA, Wakil W. 2015. Pests of stored dates. In: Wakil W, Faleiro JR, Miller TA. editors. Sustainable Pest Management in Date Palm: Current Status and Emerging Challenges. Netherland:Springer Dordrecht, p. 237-286.
Campbell PJ, Brown KC, Harrison EG, Bakker F, Barrett KL, Candolfi MR, Canez V, Dinter A, Lewis G, Mead-Briggs M, Miles M, Neumann P, Romijan K, Schmuck R, Shires S, Ufer A, Waltersdorfer A. 2000. A Hazard Quotient approach for assessing the risk to non-target arthropods form plant protection product under 91/414/EEC: hazard quotient trigger value proposal and validation. J Pest Sci. 73:117-124.
Carriger JF, Rand GM, Gardinali PR, Perry WB, Tompkins MS, Fernandez AM, 2006. Pesticides of potential ecological concern in sediment from South Florida canals: an ecological risk prioritization for aquatic arthropods. J Soils Sediments. 15:21-45.
Chi H. 1998. Life table analysis incorporating both sexes and variable development rates among individuals. Environ Entomol. 17:26-34.
Chi H, Liu H. 1985. Two new method for the study of insect population ecology. Bulletin of the Institute of Zoology. Academia Sinica. 24:225-240.
12. Collins P, Daglish G, Pavic H, Lambkin T, Kopittke R, Bridgeman B. 2000. Proceedings of the 2nd Australian Postharvest Technical Conference; 29 Oct. – 3 Nov. 2000; Combating strong resistance to phosphine in stored grain pests in Australia, p. 109–112.
13. Desneux D, Decourtye A, Delpuech JM. 2007. The sub-lethal effects of pesticides on beneficial arthropods. Annu Rev Entomol. 52:81–106.
14. Dybas RA. 1998. Vertimec use in crop protection, In: Campbell W. C. editor.Ivermectin and Vertimec. Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer, p. 287-310.
15. Fields PG, White NDG. 2002. Alternatives to methyl bromide treatments for stored-product and quarantine insects. Annu Rev Entomol. 47:331–359.
16. Fooladi M, Golmohammadi GH, Ghajarieh HR. 2015. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of insecticides Azadirachtin, Flonicamid, Thiacloprid and Thiocyclam on parasitoide wasp Habrobracon hebetor. Biocontrol in Plant Protection. 3:9-18.
17. Gill HK, Garg H. 2014. Environmental impacts and management Strategies. In: Solenski S, Larramenday ML. editors. Pesticides-toxic effects. Intech, Rijeka, Croatia, pp. 187-230.
18. Huang Y, Ho SH, Lee HC, Yap YL. 2002. Insecticidal properties of eugenol, isoeugenol and methyleugenol and their effects on nutrition of Sitophilus zeamais Motsch (Col., Culculionidae) and Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Col., Tenebrionidae). J Stored Prod Res. 38:403-412.
19. SPSS Inc. 2008. SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 17.0. Chicago, USA.
20. Keever DW, Mullen MA, Press JW, Arbogast RT. 1986. Augmentation of natural enemies for suppressing two major insect pests in stored farmer’s stock peanuts. Environ Entomol. 15:767-770.
21. Kimia Sabz Avar. 2017. Sirinol. Retrieved From: http://www.kimiasabzavar.com.
22. Lawrence PK, Koundal KR. 2002. Plant protease inhibitors in control of phytophagous insects. ELECTRON J BIOTECHN. 5:93–109.
23. Lazzari SMN, Lazzari FA. 2012. Insect Pests in Stored Grain. In: Parra JRP editor. Insect Bioecology and Nutrition for Integrated Pest Management. CRC Press, p. 417-450.
24. Mahdavi V, Saber M, Rafiee-Dastjerdi H, Kamita SG. 2015. Lethal and Demographic Impact of Chlorpyrifos and Spinosad on the Ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). NEOTROP ENTOMOL. 44:626-633.
25. Morseli H. 2008. Study of sub lethal effect of Indoxacarb and Thiodicarb on life table parameters on Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). [Master,s thesis]. Agricultural faculty, Tehran University. Iran.
26. Phillips TW, Throne JE. (2009). Biorational approaches to managing stored-product insects. Annu Rev Entomol, 55: 375–397.
27. Rafiee Dastjerdi H, Hejazi MJ, Nouri Ganbalani G, Saber M. (2009). Sub-lethal effects of some conventional and biorational insecticides on ectoparasitoid, Habrobracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). J. Entomol. 6: 82-89.
28. Rafiee-Dastjerdi H, Hassanpour M, Nouri-Ganbalani G, Golizadeh A, Sarmadi S. 2012. Sub-lethal effects of Indoxacarb, Imidacloprid and Deltamethrin on life table parameters of Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in pupal stage treatment. J Crop Prot. 1: 221-228.
29. Robertson JL, Preisler HK. 1991. Pesticide Bioassay with Arthropods. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL,p. 224.
30. Saber M, Abedi Z. 2013. Effects of methoxyfenozide and pyridalyl on the larval ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor. J Pest Sci. 86:685–693.
31. Scholler M. 2010. Biological control of stored-product insects in commodities, food processing facilities and museums; 10th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection; 27 Jun – 2 Jul, Berlin. Germany. p. 596-606.
32. Smith CM. 2005. Plant Resistance to Arthropods. Molecular and Conventional Approaches, Springer, Dordrecht.
33. Strand MR, Williams HJ, Vinson SB, Mudd A. 1989. Kairomonal activities of 2-Acylcyclohexane-1,3-diones produced by Ephestia kuehniella Zeller in eliciting searching behaviour by the parasitoid Bracon hebetor (Say). J Chem Ecol. 15:1491-1500.
34. Subramanyam Bh, Toews MD, Ileleji KE, Maier DE, Thompson GD, Pitts TJ. (2007). Evaluation of spinosad as a grain protectant on three Kansas farms. Crop Prot. 26:1021–1030.