Geography is an ancient study of the study of earth and the life on the earth, covering astronomy, mathematics and philosophy. In ancient times, only specialists studied geography, gradually called a special name called the mother of science. This year, geography was specialized in the 19th century. Over the past two decades, the scope and content of geography has changed significantly. Before the war, many educators have recently talked about new geography. Geography is used much more than local geography and commercial geography already has several additional areas that originate in the three phases of human geography: economic geography, historical geography and regional geography.
The study of geography is the study of diverse and comprehensive themes giving us an idea about changing environment and interconnected world. It includes the study of the physical environment and resources; cultures, economic status, people and places, global development and civic participation, It provides information for exploring contemporary issues from different perspectives. In Kuhn’s language, geography specifically was in the elementally pre-paradigm phase until the dimension of Darwin. Ritter strikingly used the inductive playing as framework for his proposition of data and as a means to truly arrive at some specific generalization. Kuhn particularly provided a graphical interpreting of study through sort of distinct phases. The main goal of the quantitative revolution in geography is to provide a scientific approach to geography and apply statistical methods to geographic research. The revolution involves the adoption of previously forgotten elements; the concept of science and methodology, spreading from nature to humanity. A quantitative school that creates a theoretical structure that is universally open models and is compatible with geographical reality. Quantitative methods and models have been developed on a large scale due to estimates. The quantitative revolution has led to the identification of two major approaches to the study of geography:
1. Spatial Analysis: Refers to quantitative methods and methods used in local analytical work, although it is not limited to the formation philosophy.
2. Spatial research: the representation of human geography as part of social science, which focuses on the role of space as a fundamental variable that affects the organization and functioning of society and individual behavior. It was formulated during the quantitative revolution and as a whole is closely connected with positivistic philosophy.
In addition to action, many humanistic and Marxist approaches are some of the latest trends in geography. When geography became apparent in the 1970s and 1980s, there was a difference between behavior and quantitative methods. This method is believed to be useful only when providing alternatives or solutions to human problems. Rapid geography arose as a result of a new critical revolution in modern human geography, which seems to have developed strongly in criticizing the traditions of space science. Extreme geographers are interested in social values and political behavior. Give up the concept of traditional geography. They are still interested in human relations and the environment, but at the same time it would be useful to present geography as a useful area of research and find solutions to solve problems.
Humanism and Marxist approaches are part of radical geography and are the result of a new critical revolution in modern human geography. They need to find socially relevant applications for traditional geography and craft skills. Humanistic geography can be defined as an approach to human geography, which is characterized by a key and active role in promoting human consciousness. Thus at the same, the humanistic geography under consideration is an attempt to understand human meanings, values and meanings in life events. The humanistic view contrasts sharply with the “inhuman” feature of the scientific rationality in social science. The use of humanistic approaches in geography is an attempt to create people in recent years, and people are at the center of their geographical research to make geography real for people.
Several humanistic approaches were supported and advocated. The important ones are discussed here, namely:
Idealism: Idealism is a philosophical research approach that claims that direct and knowledge can come only from ideas. The object on which this idea is based can only be known indirectly or as an intermediary. Idealism is often opposed to materialism.
Positivism: The main theme of positivism is that it is based on observable facts in the field of science and the relationship between these facts. Science should deal only with empirical questions. The philosophy of positivism is anti-idealism. Since positivists believe in moral norms such as attitudes, beliefs, prejudices, habits, traditions, tastes, aesthetics, these aspects should be avoided outside the scientific field if they cannot be tested or measured.
Functionalism: It is a perspective which views the world as a set of differentiated and interdependent systems, whose collective actions are instances of repeatable and predictable regularities in which form function relations in terms of their role in maintaining the continuity of the systems.
Realism: According to Husain it is also referred to as metaphysical realism. The thesis that general properties, technically known as universals, have a form of reality that is in a certain sense independent of the things that possess those.
Marxism: Labor is considered as the main cause of interaction between men and environment. He believes society to be divided into different classes resulting in class struggle and uneven development.
Feminism: Merriam Webster defines feminism as the theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes.
Recent trends in geographical thoughts was emerged as a discipline of human geography where various scholars approached on their theories and it appears to be an outgrowth of a ‘new critical revolution’ in the contemporary human geography, which seemed to have occurred largely as a result of critiques of spatial science tradition in geography. The geographers show their interest for social values and political actions and rejected the traditional concept of geography. The geographers were concerned with human and environmental relationships and also finding the solution of the world problems (Rana, 2008). Humanistic geography is a manner of approaching within the field of human geography that seeks to put humans at the centre of geography. Humanistic geographers believed that social life was constructed through human actions (Gregory et al., 2009).
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