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Summary: the External Conflict Through the Novel

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In Hamlet, the external conflict is that the prince is opposed to the lowland environment of the Danish court and Claudius. The internal conflict is the spiritual struggle of the hero. At the center of the tragedy is the question of man embodied in the whole figure of Hamlet. The solution of this question is connected primarily with the person himself, with his ability to become worthy of his ideal himself. In Hamlet is shown the image of a man who passing through incredible suffering, acquires the degree of courage that corresponds to the humanistic ideal of the person. Hamlet knows that his duty is to punish evil, but his idea of evil no longer corresponds to the straightforward laws of tribal revenge. Evil for him is not reduced to the crime of Claudius, whom he ultimately punishes; evil is poured in the world around it, and Hamlet realizes that one person is not able to cope with the whole world. This internal conflict leads him to the idea of the vanity of life, of suicide.

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Life of pi presents a topic of personal conflict, the struggle with oneself. Immediately after his trauma, Pi falls into one of the extremes – experiencing the world as extremely dangerous and unfriendly, uncontrollable (here both sharks swimming around the boat and extremely dangerous passengers). From this point that Pi begins to construct his new identity, of which the tiger Richard Parker is an integral part. We see a willingness to perceive the traumatic situation as a learning sense from which a lesson can be learned. The Handmaid’s Tale is a dystopian novel by Canadian writer and feminist Margaret Atwood, it tells of the oppression of women in a patriarchal religious society. Atwood felt particularly acutely the paradoxical discrepancy between the American philosophy of freedom and equality intertwined with a history of oppression and imperialism. The Handmaid’s Tale shows that authoritarianism has no face. There is no one person who owns the power. It seems that the Puritan movement arose organically: its leader is never mentioned. This reflects how many patriarchal attitudes are still alive in the modern world.

In Hamlet, the entire arsenal of artistic means of tragedy is used to create its many images, to embody the main tragic conflict – the loneliness of a humanistic person among the desert society, in which there is no place for justice, intelligence, dignity. In an effort to comprehend the ideal meaning, spiritual value and artistic power of Hamlet, one cannot tear the plot of the tragedy from its idea, isolate the actors and consider it in isolation from each other. It would be especially wrong to single out the hero and talk about him out of touch with the action of the tragedy. “Hamlet” is not a monodrama, but a complex dramatic picture of life, in which different characters are shown in interaction. 

In The Handmaid’s Tale, characters use special words to communicate so that unnecessary questions do not arise. For example, when women are dismissed from work, they call it liberation – they replace negative connotation with positive connotation, and we get “freedom from” instead of “freedom for”. In the Life of Pi, a predatory island is a bright image, on which Pi falls shortly before the end of his journey. This metaphor reflects the peculiarity of survivors of traumatic events, focusing on the past, regret for goals that were not achieved, and now cannot be achieved, as well as reflections on what should have been done, but did not work to avoid injury. The many meerkats inhabiting the island are vain thoughts that fill the head, not allowing to stop and look around, to find territories free from traumatic events. 

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