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After Germany’s surrender to Japan on August 9th, 1945 The soviet Union, the United States, France, and Great Britain, came together after defeating the nazis and split Germany into 4 sections. The United States ,Great Britain, and France eventually became West Germany and the soviet union took East Germany. France, Great Britain, And the United States were known as the Federal Republic of Germany while the Soviet Union in the east was the German Democratic Republic, also known as the GDR. Being divided, eventually the Iron curtain evolved amongst Germany. The Iron curtain was an imaginary border or wall between East and West Germany. The soviets wanted to block non- soviet controlled areas off from contact and trade from the soviet Union and its satellite countries. East Germans could pass and go into West Germany as they pleased. This would soon become a population problem in East Germany.
In 1948 the berlin blockade takes place followed by the soviet union cutting off all of the water and land transit routes running between East and West Germany thus beginning the Berlin blockade. Because their land ways are blocked the allies began the berlin airlift flying resources such as coal, fuels, food, and water to berlin for the next 11 months. The allies successfully airlifted over around 8,000 tons of supplies per day adding up to 2.3 million tons of supplies to West Berlin by the end of the Berlin Airlift. All of this summed up to 300,000 total flights to the city. The berlin airlift also had the code name of “operation Vittles.” The allies continued the berlin airlift for more than a year due to the soviet union refusing to stop the blockade. Including helping bringing some of these resources to berlin, Gail halvorsen was a pilot during this time and was known for dropping candies attached to parachutes to the children of west berlin. He was named “The candy bomber,” by The children of West Berlin. In 1949 the berlin airlift still continuing, the blockade is ended by the Soviet Union On May 12th. By september of that year the Berlin Airlift also comes to an end. However, this is not the end of the battles of West and East Germany.
Around 1951 is when immigration from east to west Germany began to start happening. Citizens of east germany were not completely free. They remained under the watch of the secret police called the stasi. However, they did have free healthcare and education in East germany, but West germany had higher salaries, more consumer goods and resources, and overall more freedom. As of 1961, 3.5 million East german citizens, nearly 20 percent of the population, migrated to the west. A lot of young workers had left to go to the west leaving east germany without it’s best young employers. In 1961,to prevent more east German citizens from leaving the country, orders to put the berlin wall to be put up were made by soviet union leaders. On the morning of August 13th troops and armies set out across the border putting up barriers and barbed wires soon to become the new berlin wall. Berlin became a divided city leaving the rest of the East german citizens left not being able to leave the country for the next 28 years.
As construction of the Berlin wall begins, there is 43 kilometers to build across the border of Berlin to build and another 112 kilometers of wall to be put up around East Germany. The first parts of the construction was a simple base consisting of barbed wire and mesh fencing where the wall will be. When the wall was being constructed, Soviets blew up and plowed through anything in the new wall’s path.