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The Consumption of Bottled and Tap Water in Ontario

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The following stated is the balanced chemical equation for complete combustion of a saturated long-chain hydrocarbon: As we see in the graph, over the period, which is from 1910 to 2000, the amount of oil produced has increased abundantly. This is the result of the constantly increasing demand in oil. Humans have become very dependent on products containing oil and also on products that have been obtained from oil. An example of these products are carpets, paints, clothing, electronic devices, medications, hygiene products, transportation, etc. The increase in demand in our day-to-day lifestyle has directly affected in the increase in production of more oil over these years.

In my opinion, this trend is not sustainable as oil is considered to be a non-renewable. As our demands for oil is increasing, more oil deposits are dug and drilled every day. If this is continued over a long period of time, we will eventually end up depleting all the oil that is in the oil deposits inside the earth. Once we run out of the oil, we would have no more oil as our demand for oil would still be increasing, but our supply of oil would be all exhausted.

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There can be various plan of actions that can be implemented in our household in order to reverse this trend of increasing demand in the production of oil. The plan of action that my household can include is: To begin with, we can limit ourselves to usage of one car in the family. We can carpool with our coworkers and friends that share the same work destination and school as that of us. Also, we can use public transport like buses and subways as much as possible. Younger people in healthy conditions, can use bicycles to travel small distances. If utmost necessary, electrical cars can be used. Another change that we can implement is reducing the use of plastic and paper cups, which are used at many fast food restaurants for serving hot and cold beverages. This is because excess amount of oil is used in machines that make plastic and paper cups. Instead we all can carry our own reusable cups, which can be washed and reused as many times as possible. Installing water filters in our homes instead of using bottled water can be helpful as well. We can install solar panels on our rooftops in order to save the gas and oil that is used in the heating and cooling system. Windows that are dual paned can be used to avoid loss of heat during the cold months. Also we can improve insulate our walls so less energy is wasted on the heating system. Also like washing our laundry in cold water instead of hot and line drying our clothes outside in the sun during summer can be beneficial towards this change. Overall, if each household can contribute to the above suggested actions, the amount of oil used in day to day life can be tremendously reduced.

The iodine chemical test can be conducted on the two unlabelled bottles in order to find out which one of them are saturated or unsaturated. To perform this test, firstly, we need to add five drops of iodine solution to both the bottles. Then seal each bottle tightly and shake it. Allow each sample to settle. Now allow the bottles to stand undisturbed for about an hour. Iodine will react in an addition reaction with alkene molecule to add to the double bond. Therefore, if you notice that the colour of the iodine has disappeared, that means an alkene molecule is present. Therefore, it would be an unsaturated substance. If you observe no change in the colour of a substance, that would conclude that it is a saturated substance with the presence of an alkane molecule.

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an unsaturated organic compound that is denser than water, hence it sinks down to the waterbed. Other organic liquids such as oil is lighter than water and hence it floats on the surface of water. Therefore, in an event of an oil spill vs a TCE spill, it is easier to clean up the oil spill as oil sits on the surface of the water compared to TCE that sinks to the waterbed.

Trichloroethylene or commonly known as TCE is an unsaturated organic compound. This is a colourless compound which is highly volatile. TCE is most commonly used in making refrigerators. They are also used in cleaning substances, paint removers, carpet cleaning, etc. They are used in automotive industries to degrease metals. People who work in these industries and factories that use TCE are getting exposed to it for a prolonged period. People who use paints and paint removers while house construction also get exposed to TCE. If TCE is mishandled and not properly discarded, it can easily seep into ground water causing contamination. Consumption of this contaminated water or even inhaling the air that contains TCE can cause serious health risks to an individual, such as kidney cancer or liver diseases (“Trichloroethylene”, 2018). Some of the short term effects include headache and dizziness. Also skin irritation may occur (“CAREX Canada- Trichloroethylene”, 2018). Cleaner alternatives that do not contain TCE, could be used. For example, EnSolv, which is a great alternative solvent to TCE, is used to clean metal parts. It is reasonable and outweighs all the health risks involved with regards to TCE (Loepke, 2015). In conclusion, due the high risk involved with TCE, the ban on this substance is justified as it is put in place to prevent and protect people from health risks and further jeopardizing their lives.

Pentanal

The molecular formula C5H10O cannot be drawn as an ether because it contains only 10 hydrogen molecules. In order to draw an ether, we need 12 hydrogen molecules as one of them would be using a double bond to make a 5 carbon ether molecule. Chemical equation for the synthesis of 2-pentanol from an alkene, here pentene: In terms of increasing boiling point, that is, from lowest to highest, the order will be propanone followed by 1-propanol. Propanone is a ketone. It has weak intermolecular force of dipole-dipole bonding within its molecules. Also, ketones are not capable of hydrogen bonding. Therefore, they have low boiling points in comparison to an alcohol, like 1-propanol, which has a strong intermolecular force of hydrogen bonding within its molecules. Therefore, 1-propanol has a higher boiling point.

Types of Intermolecular Forces

This compound is propane, which is an alkane. There is a small difference in the electronegativity of hydrogen and carbon, so covalent bond between these elements is non-polar. Therefore, the only intermolecular forces between these molecules is London forces. This compound is propanone, which is a ketone. The bond within the molecules in this is a strong polar covalent bond formed by unequal sharing of a pair of electrons. Therefore, the intermolecular forces between these molecules are London forces and dipole-dipole forces. This compound is 1-propanol, which is an alcohol. The compound also contains a hydroxyl functional group. The electronegativity difference between hydrogen and oxygen is large, so the bond is polar. Therefore, the intermolecular forces between these molecules are hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole forces and London forces.

In order of lowest boiling point to highest boiling point:, and. Now, has the highest boiling point as it is an alcohol with a hydroxyl functional group and its molecules are held together tightly by hydrogen bonding. has a lower boiling point than because propanone is a polar bond, while propane is a non-polar bond. Dipole-dipole forces in propanone are stronger than the London forces in propane as it is an alkane.

There is a huge amount of plastic water bottles floating in the Pacific Ocean, which has formed an enormous floating mat, commonly known as Great Pacific Garbage Patch. This garbage patch is increasing in size every day. However, our concern would not only be the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, but also plastic water bottles getting accumulated in the Great Lakes (The Ontario Educational Communications Authority, 2012, lesson 8, p. 1). As per a study, 80% of the litter, which is accumulated in the Great Lakes, is plastic water bottles. This astonishing number is causing a threat to the ecosystem and the environment (Kealy, 2016). At this rate, a total ban on plastic water bottles is very important for our environment and ecosystem. A total ban will have many positive impacts. To name a few, the Great Lakes is a source of drinking water to many residents not only in Canada, but also in the United States. The chemicals that leach out from the plastic water bottles disrupts marine life’s hormone system, which in turn affects human beings after consumption of aquatic food (Rochman, 2019). All in all, a ban on plastic water bottles will bring attention to all of these health and environmental concerns.

Firstly, the success of plastic water bottle recycling in Ontario is not at its best level. The number of bottles that end up in landfill each year is about a billion (Kealy, 2016). A study done by the Polaris Institute says only 14 percent of plastic water bottles get recycled in Ontario (Leslie, 2016). Another study done by Global News in Toronto claims that the blue bin program in the city collects approximately 180,000 tons of recyclable. Now, out of this, 30 percent ends up in landfills due to contamination that takes place from leftover food waste, textile, and non-recyclable products (Zettler, 2019). In terms of time and energy, a study conducted in 2009 by two researchers from the Pacific Institute found that it takes 5.6 to 10.2 million joules of energy to produce a litre of bottled water (Zyga, 2009). Bottled water consumes 2000 times more energy in comparison to tap water as stated by The Council of Canadians, a non-profit organization (Leslie, 2016). With regards to the safety and health concerns of bottled water, researches have shown an increase in the level of tooth decay in children caused due to low levels of fluoride in bottled water (Stastna, 2014). Dr. Chelsea Rochman did a study on fishes to test the impact of microplastics, (nanoplastic found in bottled water), on animals. Some of the effects observed of microplastics were beginning stages of tumour, toxicity of the liver and endocrine system disruption, which could be alarming for human health as well (Szeto, et al, 2018). Also, bottled water is not subjected to meticulous checks. According to Polaris Institute, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, conducts inspections on bottled water manufacturing plants every three years (Stastna, 2014).

The Ontario government increased the fee of the water being extracted for the purpose of being bottled from $3.71 per million litres to $503.71 per million litres in August, 2017 (Kilkenny, 2017). In Ontario, a 500 ml bottled water costs, $0.08 when it is bought in a large quantity, whereas it can cost $2.50 for name brand bottles. On the contrary, the cost of municipal water will cost only a tenth of a cent per liter (Stastna, 2014). In Ontario, the amount of plastic water bottles that ends up in landfill each day is increasing. As per a report that was done in 2016, approximately 1 billion water bottles end up in landfills each year in Ontario. This number seems to be growing as Ontario does not have a deposit return program for water bottles which results in a poor system of recycling (Kealy, 2016). Regarding safety of municipal drinking water, a report from University of Toronto states that the city of Toronto check it water quality every four hours for traces of over 300 foreign substances (Hotton, 2016). Also, Ontario’s strict health based water quality standards continue to meet 99.8% of water quality tests since 2004. Ontario has an award-winning protection framework for drinking water. Ontario multifaceted actions received an A-ranking in Ecojustice’s Canada Drinking water report card. With Ontario’s multi-barrier approach and source protection plans, Ontarians can be confident and enjoy clean and safe drinking water (“Drinking water- Source Protection”, 2019). In conclusion, plastic bottles should be banned completely from Ontario and drinking from tap water should be highly encouraged as it is more beneficial for our health and our environment as well.

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