The Criminal Justice Reform and System

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Patrick Langan, a federal government statistician, conducted a study and found that “Even if racism [in sentencing] exists, it might help explain only a small part of the gap between the 11 percent black representation in the United States adult population and the now nearly 50 percent black representation among persons entering state prisons each year in the United States”. Congress declared the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act. The meaning of a hate crime was expanded to include crimes provoked by a person’s sexual orientation or how they were born or what they believe (“Gay”). In an article titled “Racial Discrimination, ” the civil rights campaign of the 1950s through the late 1960s in the U.S. saw the journey of primary legislation to overthrow inequitable practices and segregation. Another law formed during the civil rights movement was the Fair Housing Act, which shields people from differentiation in buying, selling, or renting housing. In an article titled ‘Minority Rights: Do members of minority groups enjoy equal opportunity and treatment in the United States,’ the Thirteenth Amendment, approved in 1865, eliminated slavery. The Fourteenth Amendment, sanctioned in 1868, gave only individuals born in the United States citizenship and ensured fairness under the law. The Fifteenth Amendment, endorsed in 1870, ensured black men the power to vote.

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 Encouraged by the march and the developing civil rights movement, Congress quickly established two landmark laws: the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. These laws arranged the national government’s pledge to end apartheid and biased exercises, such as demanding voters to pass knowledge examinations. On March 7, 1965, state and local police in Selma, Alabama, bombarded civil rights marchers in a parade, attacking people with batons, tear gas, and forceful hoses. Over 100 people were wounded, this developed into what is known as “Bloody Sunday” (“Police”). Historically, many events have occurred that have changed the way civilians live today in both positive and negative ways. Reform in the criminal justice system will help prevent police brutality, discrimination based on sexual orientation, and prejudice on ethnic background and religious beliefs.

Others against reform believe that law enforcement has already done everything in their power to rid the U.S. of discrimination. They also think that people who are protecting homosexuals are hindering people who do not support homosexuals of their religious freedom. Wedding related small businesses are criticized for refusing service to those who are homosexual. Police officers in New York and Southern California sneaked into mosques because they were presumed to contain extremist activities (“Minority”). Followers of police say that police brutality is not a vital predicament, they say that the accusations of police brutality are just so people can get the upper hand (“Police”).

Police forces across the nation too frequently use unreasonable force; injuring, and infrequently murdering people who possess limited threat. An article entitled ‘Police Brutality: Do U.S. police departments use appropriate force when dealing with the public,’ harsh actions performed by police officers too frequently go unpunished. Multiple local districts have citizen review boards to consider the efficacy of complaints upon police officers. Civil rights supporters, have scrutinized these strategies as incompetent and extremely reliant on the police forces they are expected to review. Several police departments have also produced services of domestic events to examine police misbehavior, though such authorities have endured comparable criticisms of being prejudiced in support of police officers. The immense preponderance of accusations against police are discarded upon additional examination. When there are opportunities that arise to improve our police departments and people share their concerns, they are disregarded by the people who need it most. There are new policies that were put in place to help prevent accusations of police brutality, such as stop-and-frisk tactics. This permits police officers to halt anyone they consider skeptical and search the person and their possessions or prohibited weapons or contraband. Opposers of such a ploy insist that police have targeted juvenile men from minority groups. Police officers are more likely to engage in accusing minority groups. This tactic violates both the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments. Police brutality is still a problem in today’s world; however, that is not the only dilemma.

Many people have immigrated to the United States to better their life. Immigrants suffer many forms of discrimination based on their ethnicity and religion. The article ‘Minority Rights: Do members of minority groups enjoy equal opportunity and treatment in the United States’ states, the 19th and initial 20th centuries were a period of heavy settlement. Numerous faced discrimination, particularly the Irish, whom multiple Americans denied to hire, and the Chinese were excluded from voting, residing in specific areas, paid coarser salaries, and fiercely assaulted in vigilante and mob actions. Based on their ethnicity, people are secluded from activities that people of nonminority groups get to participate in. Just like people who are criticized for things such as voting or living situations. People are also judged about where they practice their religion. People have the right to express their religion, no matter where they are. Efforts to build Muslim areas of worship, mosques, in places such as New York City and Murfreesboro, Tennessee, have been stalled for months due to anti-Muslim displays. People should have the ability to reveal their religious beliefs without feeling threatened. In order to do that, people need to understand that others have the right to show their religion, no matter the place or time.

Homosexuals are forced to keep their sexuality private due to the fact that people can have violent and aggressive tendencies towards them. ‘Gay Rights: Do People Deserve the Same Rights and Protections Regardless of Sexual Orientation, Including the Right to Marry,’ released in July 2018 states, historically, the Supreme Court has refused efforts to use religious independence as a justification against the LGBTQ+ community. According to the Supreme Court, the purpose of the First Amendment is not for discriminatory use. Supporters contend the U.S. government should explicitly forbid judgment on the base pertaining to sexual direction. Gay rights advocates are especially crucial to the Trump organization’s conclusion in July 2017 to arrange a claim in a work environment separation case, claiming that the Civil Rights Act of 1964 does not forbid such segregation. In August 2017, a collection of 60 affiliates of Congress explained in a letter addressed to U.S. attorney general Jeff Sessions stated, “We believe this action is not only contrary to existing law but violates our nation’s ideals of liberty and justice for all”. People think the Trump administration claim did not help the citizens at all. All that this claim did was weaken the people’s freedom and rights.

Reformation in the criminal justice system will further deter police brutality, discrimination based on sexual identity, and prejudice on racial and religious bias. Others believe that the world today is perfect. However, in order for the world to be perfect, there needs to be no problems. There are issues everywhere that prevent this “perfect” world from happening. In order to take a step forward, things need to change. 

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