The Dawn of the 20th Century


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Why were the social construction of Jim Crow and Social Darwinism, as ideologies so significant to the social, economic and political landscape of the United States into the 20th Century? Be Exhaustive in your answer.

The Social Darwinism is theory at the time that strongest will survive. Social construction is already preconceived to an idea of your response. Jim Crow Laws which established after the American Civil war had ended. These laws were put in place to uphold the dynamics of the society at the time which was mainly based on segregation. Separate schools, separate water fountains, and separate seats on transportation. Segregation was one of the main systems that took place after law passed to abolish Slavery. Social Darwinism theory states that humans are no different when it comes to the laws of natural selection and mean that the weak would slowly die out as the strong overcome and became the majority. Both Jim Crow and Social Darwinism have an impact on the minority or the ones that have not been naturally selected as the leading majority. Jim Crow is what caused social constructions of segregation to be allowed without a second thought. It lead to other social constructions of this power hierarchy as those who were white considering themselves to still be in power even though slavery law had passed. This meant socially African Americans at that time in history had no real power and were not treated equally because of how society constructed the ideas and a repercussion of Jim Crow. Economically both Social Darwinism and Jim Crow point out how African Americans were the ones most at a disadvantage due to the differences in ideal and society norms at the time. Politicians who would attempt to do anything to benefit those in this social Darwinism disadvantage. They would also be looked down upon and lead more and more people to adopt this ideology where Whites have more power and that they shouldn’t be seen assisting those beneath them tying back to this pseudo-hierarchy of power. In the era of Social Darwinism Eugenics is the process of controlled breeding which prevents certain characteristics from being passed down.T his means the strongest survive and the weak don’t due to most power White will hold. All this suppression lead to Progressive social movements which are divided into two main categories, movements for equality and individual rights, and movements for economic justice.

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Why does Carnegie think it is better to build public institutions than to give charity to the poor? How did the freedoms of the wealth compare to the “freedom” of the poor?

The turn of the 20th century, there was so much going on and the confluence of the event lead to Industrialization, the growth of cities, Rise of Immigration, and people still face issues of Inequality. During the Gilded age, social construction was built on an idea of new hope.

Andrew Carnegie is one of the people who help build social construction for many communities. He was an immigrant but became one of the wealthiest people overtime in America. Andrew Carnegie built the steel and railroad Industry. His wealth leads him to be recognized as an important figure of his time. He gave away millions during his lifetime and strongly believed that using wealth wisely for the benefit of the community is a responsibility of every rich person. He also saw a great value in self-education so built public libraries at a time when there aren’t too many. Carnegie thinks rich should only help those who are willing to help themselves. He believes giving charity to the poor might do more harm because you might be helping those who do not need help. He focuses on Public institutions which would benefit all the communities. Carnegie strongly believed that wealthy people should repay their debt to society by a contribution.T he law of growing competition, described as many workers forced into strict labor condition and rates paid was not enough for survival. This employer and the employed system created a huge gap between the capital and labor which distinguish between rich and poor. He believed that the problem of rich and poor need to be solved only if an individual with wealth can serve the community and meet the needs of poor people, which can strengthen the future of many generations. People will build credible trust about a rich person who uses his wealth year by year for the general goods of community. As we all know today we can obtain anything with a quality and prices which the previous generation could not even imagine having access to. The poor enjoy what the rich could only afford during that time and now these luxuries become the necessities of life. The laborer has more comforts now than the farmer had a few generations ago. All this had been evolved and applied over time due to those who stood up for rights and fought for equality and justice. This freedom, rights, and equality we enjoy today is a milestone for us and generations to come.

What social conditions gave rise to Memphis Lynching? What do Wells see as the contribution of the anti-lynching movement?

The social conditions which gave rise to Memphis Lynching are as follow. African American is building businesses and homes that would help them establish communities. The Whites were not happy with African American getting the same benefits as them. They want to do everything in their power to dominate over the African American. White supremacist organizations want to suppress African-American success of communities, destroy any means of rights and implement the establishment of Jim Crow laws, which prohibit African-Americans from being able to participate in all aspects of American life. Another example of White supremacist propaganda was to frame African American for raping a white woman. White supremacists had destroyed much time African American liberation from imprisonment and slavery. One of it was lynching which used to create fear.

The earliest and most reliable record of lynching was found in 1882 with 3,446 victims being African-American men and women. These finding of Lynching event caused outrage and African American newspaper began publishing articles and editorials. Ida B. Wells expressed her outrage in the pages of the Memphis Free Press. Wells sew how the southern whites refusing to let go of their slaves. The publication of this news article bought national attention to the issue and as a result, several organizations were established to fight against lynching.

The Anti-lynching movement was one of many civil rights movements established in the United States. The purpose of the movement was to end lynching of African-American men and women and worked in a variety of ways to end the Lynching practice. The passing of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, already gave the rights to African-Americans and who were now considered full and free citizens of the United States. Ida B. Wells worked with both the NACW and NAACP to establish anti-lynching legislation. These sets of justice movement allowed us to continue and enjoy our freedom without any boundaries in today’s world.

How does Sanger define” free motherhood”? How does she believe that access to birth control will change women’s lives?

Margaret Sanger was an early feminist for women’s rights activist and social reformer. She introduces the term “birth control” and worked towards its legalization. She believed that some group should need birth control. The basic freedom of the world is woman’s freedom.

Sanger started a journal called The Woman Rebel, to advertise the birth control. This magazine got her in trouble, as that time it was illegal to send out birth control information and contraception by mail. There was already a law in place which made mailing and importing any material related to birth control considered a crime.

Sanger”Free motherhood” is defined as how women should have a free choice about getting pregnant. She worked favoring poor working class women having access to birth control, which will for sure bring happiness and freedom in their life. Sanger started her campaign to educate women about birth control and continued fighting for women’s right of birth control information and contraceptives availability.

In 1916, Sanger opened her first clinic at a working-class neighborhood in Brooklyn. She distributed contraceptive devices to poor Jewish and Italian working women. Sanger was arrested and was charged with providing information on contraceptives. She spent a month in jail for breaking the law. However, she did file appeal for her conviction and won victory for the birth control movement. The court did not overturn the earlier verdict but made an exception to the existing law allowing doctors to prescribe contraception to their female patients for medical reasons.

In 1921, Sanger formed American Birth Control League, which today is called Planned Parenthood. She also lived to see another important reproductive rights milestone in 1965, “when the Supreme Court made birth control legal for married couples in its decision on Griswold v. Connecticut. “As of today, there are many clinics carry Sanger name, to remember her efforts to recognize women’s rights and the birth control movement. This was an important issue during The Progressive Era for women rights.

Who are the winners at the end of World War 1? Where there winners? According to Mao, in what a part of the world was the principle of national self-discrimination adhered to and which parts of the world was that ideal violated? Why does Zedong Feel sorry for President Wilson? Did the end of WW1 end European or American Imperialism?

After watching the documentary of the World War 1 France, Britain, and Russia were all united by the fear that the rival countries Germany, Austria Hungry and Italy are now Europe’s strongest power. The war started during the period, where most of Western Europe was in conflict with religion drama and they thought it’s their Right to invade other territories for colonization. Britain Empire at the time had total control in Asia and Africa. World War 1 there are no winners except new countries emerged and many got independence by signing Armistice. This was a long fought war with million and million of life loss all around the world, but there was no gain except strict restriction placed on Germany. That was called the Treaty of Versailles with 14 points. This treaty would put a limit on the German army and they should accept the responsibility of War.

The principle of national self-discrimination adhered by Germany, Austria Hungry and Italy. France, Britain, and Russia would ideal violated. Woodrow Wilson originally did not think about the war and he wanted to keep the United States out of the war. When Germany started targeting American ships then the US got involved. He said we must fight a war to make world safer place for democracy.

Zedong Feel sorry for President Wilson as he writes in his book. “Wilson does not know what to do as he was surrounded by thieves at Paris meeting. He could not say or do anything about all that was happening, except accounts of receiving territory and reparations worth in means of so much gold. One day Zedong mention in his book that a Reuter’s telegram read “President Wilson has finally agreed with Clemenceau’s view that Germany not to be admitted to League of Nations.” Zedong said in his book the word “finally agreed” made him sorry for Wilson for a long time. The End with the word “Poor Wilson.”

World War 1 ended European Imperialism, but a start of American Imperialism. American Imperialism was to control nature through natural resources. Wilson by promoting liberal internationalism a foreign policy on the conviction that economic and political progress went hand in hand and it was a job of the US to promote both free markets and political democracy.

In conclusion W W I conflict started by the assassination of a Duke Ferdinand of Austria which leads by Serbian military’s political motive. During that time there was also Western Europe’s fear of Germany becoming next strongest power. This war leads to many countries involved and millions of people lost their lives. Many countries gain their independence and other faced challenges such as reparation and economic hardship to rebuild what was lost during the War. Armenian genocide occurs during WW I. World War I ended to seed the World War II. As of today activist still search for the truth on who won and who lost during WORLD WAR I. This question is still remains unanswered till today.

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