In 321 BCE, banished general Chandragupta Maurya, under direct support of the virtuoso of Chanakya, established the Maurya empire in the wake of toppling the authoritative lord Dhana Nanda. This past life was known as the Golden Age of India, during which Hinduism and Buddhism expanded to quite a bit of south-east Asia. This empire had its own capital city called Patna. This empire was the largest to have ever existed in the Indian subcontinent. During this period India contained people who were considered Vedic people and Indo- Aryans. These people were not originally from India, but they came as migrants traveling through the subcontinent. Aryan people first settled in Punjab, but they are like nomads, so they traveled east along The Ganges. They eventually impressed their way of life and started a language along with religious beliefs. In response to the Aryans coming to India as migrating pastoralists, historians desired to understand their origins. Around the time Aryans came about, agriculture became very important. Land began to clear out because of the nomadic traits Aryans preserved. As the land cleared out, community villages began to develop. Resources like iron tools and rice made farming very productive during this era, which then increased the workforce population on land. Unfortunately, the population began to grow due to more job opportunities. At the end of this era, the earliest towns started to form. The Mauryan Dynasty went more than 5 million square kilometers at its pinnacle under Ashoka. Not long after Chandragupta ousted the Nanda Empire, he extended his capacity quickly alongside the assistance of Chanakya— an old Indian instructor and logician.
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Additionally, his extension exploited the obstruction of nearby powers in the fogs of the withdrawal westbound by Alexander the Great's armed forces. Near 316 BCE, the dynasty completely involved Northwestern India, while crushing and toppling the satraps left by Alexander. Moreover, Chandragupta crushed the intrusion that was driven by Seleucus - a Macedonian general from Alexander the Great's military. Chandragupta then obtained an extra domain that was nearly west of the Indus River. For the time being, the Indus River was most definitely the most prolonged river in Asia. This specific river was very significant because that was the most important supplier of water resources to the Punjab and Sindh plains. This river formed the backbone of agriculture and food production in Pakistan. Political changes began to occur as the empire began to expand. In northern India, the landscape was ruled by kingdoms and oligarchies. As time progressed the type of governing began to differ. The Aryans colonized new territories and clans, or confederacies of a clan would claim the territories as their possession and later name it after a ruling family. The leader of the clan families then governed the territory by convoking periodically in assembly halls. Next, a smaller group of chiefs managed the reflections, voting, and carried out the daily tasks of everyday governing. In addition to the political change’s society began to change as well. Before, the Aryan society was classified as a three-class social structure. The three classes consisted of priests, warriors, and commoners. However, during the later Vedic Age, the social structure became more hierarchical.
A system based on classifying a person’s occupation category was formed by the religious leaders in society. These categories were called Varnas. There were four types of varnas: Kshatriya, Brahmins, Vaishya, and Shudra. The Kshatriya were the warriors, whose responsibility was to govern and fight if needed. Next were the Brahmins, they were a priest who must memorize and orally transfer Veda— Hindu scriptures and maintain a healthy relationship with God by performing sacrifices. Vaishyas were commoners who traded goods and farmed. Lastly was Shudras, they were people who performed a menial task. People were born into Varnas just like Americans were born into their social classes. Varna was also translated as a person’s ritual status. This means that varna determined how pure or polluted you were, along with what level of participation in rituals that a person could associate with. The Brahmins were the purest and the most respected. Shudras were the most polluted and could not engage in any sacrifice activities. Lastly, the northern Indian population continued to arise spontaneously. The landscape became filled with more villages, towns, and small cities. The city ended up becoming even more complex than it was before. This where a cast system becomes involved. A casting system is quite like Varnas, but it does have a small difference. Like varnas castes were hereditary social classifications. On the contrary, they were not distinct social groups. Instead, they were more theoretical and important for establishing political elites in society. In summation, the origins and development of the Mauryan Empire impacted India significantly and developed many societies along with government changes.