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There are four basic types of mosaic sets: opusbarbaricum, opusvermiculatum, opussectile и opustesselatum. In St. Petersburg, it is customary to divide mosaics into Roman, Byzantine, Florentine and Venetian mosaics. The last term defines mosaic works created in the mosaic workshop of the Academy of Fine Arts in St. Petersburg.
Mosaic of the 21st century completely changed the classical idea of this kind of art. The mosaic set became more arbitrary or mixed. Increasingly, various items of utensils, buttons and even ordinary building nails are used in work, from which the artists of the virtuoso create masterpieces of world art, proving only the relevance of this direction.
The American company managed to automate the process of making a mosaic: a robot named Arty stacks ceramic squares of the desired color on a substrate with a size of 30 × 30 cm, after which they are assembled into a single pattern. First, based on a snapshot or other image, the program itself develops a mosaic design, for example, for a hotel lobby, restaurant or pool. After this, the design project is sent to the ERP-system. Then Arty begins to make work.
Mosaic panel, executed by robot Arty
Unlike robots, modern artists often use non-traditional materials and methods in creating their mosaic works. For example, Julie Sperling creates her unusual works by hand and uses non-ordinary materials that are not amenable to processing by techno-logical robots. Very often in her works she uses natural stones in combination with animal bones. It is known that since ancient times breastplates, ord-den and medals have been molded from non-ferrous metals with the help of various foundry technologies, but there have also been ideas of mosaicists. Classical orders were interpreted and made of natural stone with the addition of gold smalt and framed with a metal inset.
Today, mosaic works in combination with wood are very popular! The artist only interprets the natural material, supplementing it with mo-zaika, and the texture stains with various colors. In the tree make a groove, staining it, and then on an es-kiuz spread a mosaic. In the mosaic works of British artist Jane Perkins in the course is everything: different and different colored buttons, fragments of combs and hairpins, pieces of igrushki and broken plastic boxes. All this as a result becomes one big mosaic picture, which is more like a collage. Very interesting works of the artist Laura Harris: to create works, she uses various items: buttons, stones, beads, keys and all kinds of gears. The image of the artist is very individual, although it clearly shows the features of surrealism.
Eastern mosaicists are often engaged in decorating kitchen utensils. In general, they often decorate various objects with mosaic, subtly and concisely enter different objects into the space to be decorated, for example: teapots, glasses, etc. In works are used as pieces of colored glass, natural stones, and various metal inserts. In Europe, and in particular in Italy, it is important to create various mosaic art objects from household rubbish and only partially use smalt or natural stone.