The upheaval in information and communication technologies (ICT) has been shifting not only the daily lives of individuals but also the connections between governments and people. The digital government or electronic government (e-government) has started as a new form of communal organization that cares and redefines the existing and new information, communication and transaction-related contacts with participants (e.g., people and industries) through ICT, especially through the Internet and Web technologies, with the purpose of improving government performance and procedures.
So far, to a varying degree the outline of interaction government-public has been one way. The stages have been:
In the first three steps, e-government can be seen as a process of upgrading the public sector from paper-based tasks and procedures to digital ones. These steps are based on the “information transfer model” and the “public organizational process computerization model,” resulting in fast and fitting 7/24 contact to government information and amenities, and achieving more effectual government with efficient and computerized services within and transversely government agencies. The data in these stages has been flowing in one way, from the government to the public, with limited criticism from people.
This type of e-government is mainly called Web 1.0-based e-government or Government 1.0.The change of government mentality requires an expressive dialog between this government and the people as well as among people themselves. Data should stream not only from the government to the people but also from people to the government and between them.
The people’ voices should be heard and echoed back to transform the existing government strategies. In order to achieve this kind of renovation, there needs to be extensive technological support for people’s participation. The government, exhibited as a data and amenities provision entity, and as a policies implementation and decision-making entity has been altered into a participatory government, which comprises people and other organizations (e.g., NGOs) as agents and partners in data creation, service improvement and strategy making. This common governance model and the involvement of the people in digital government is a footstep towards a more democratic development, for which the term e-democracy has been created. This new model makes government more clear, more responsible, and more reliable, since the people, government officials and other sponsors participate in policymaking, content creation, information collection, know how sharing and arranging, and cooperative decision making.
Social media can be well-thought-out as a troublesome technology for government, generating “disruptive modernization” in the digital government as well as expanding digital government with better amenities and organization. To create “innovative modernization”, the government needs to mature strategies and reproductions for how to use these empowering technologies to attain a alteration of every aspect of government, such as service delivery, decision and policy making, management, governance and democracy.
These social network systems permit big scale dispersed partnership, data sharing and creation of communal intel government areas at all stages from local to central. Governments are in front of unprecedented transparency necessities and openness, further stimulated through automated grassroots mobilization via social media. The transformative influence of the social medium on the government is often described as model shift.
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