In 2015, Wilkinson, Grand and Dunaway studied the effects of skin tone on perceptions of socio economic and competition among whites, blacks, and Latinos. The outcome of this work was that skin quality has an effect only on the blacks’ perceptions of Hispanics; light-skinned blacks are less likely to perceive commonality and more potential to perceive employment competition with Latinos, relative to blacks with darker skin shades and also some evidence indicates that the effect of skin tone on blacks’ perceptions of commonality with Latinos is moderated by education.
Mathews (2013) stated in her article that preference for light skin color effected to African-American women. Due to colorism everyone focus only on physical appearance. Actually, those women who have light skin color get more advantages in all fields and they one superior than girls who had a dark complexion. Result of this study showed that the complexion is still very sensitive and complicated issue for African-American women.
The yearning for lightness evident in the widespread and growing habit of skin bleaching around the globe can rightfully be seen as a legacy of colonialism, a materialization of “false consciousness,” and the internalization of “white is right” values of people of color, particularly adult females. Therefore, one oft-proposed solution to the problem is reducation that stresses the variety of types of beauty and desirability and that vaporizes darker skin shades, so that lightness/whiteness is dislodged as the prevailing criterion.
This research develops and tries out a theory of gendered differences in skin tone among African Americans. This study was based on qualitative method. The findings of this study were skin color has influence on their attractiveness and this influence is high in women as compared to men. The gender-by-skin-tone interaction is governed with the theory that African Americans perceive fair skin tone as a particularly feminine characteristic. Findings suggested that the influence of the European standard of beauty exists among African- American women.
The practice of skin whitening is very common in all over the world. There are very high ratio of those females who use fairness products without knowing their dangerous reactions and results. Skin bleaching involves the usage of various decorative products such as ointment, soap, and lotions. Mostly Gel, toothpaste, bleach, washing powder, and battery acid are used as bleaching products. It is consider that colorism and preference for light skin are main reasons for applying whitening products. Other causes for extended utilization of whitening cosmetics include combating uneven skin tone, cutting down the signs of aging, and treating other dermatological problems, including “acne, melasma, and post inflammatory hyperpigmentation”.
Phillips and Kwakye (2016) attempted to conceptualize the reasons behind why people bleach and why they need a fair complexion. And discussed with those people who use bleaching and why they use these dangerous products. In a study directed at determining the relationship between skin tone and the development of self-concept and esteem, Thompson and Keith found that skin tone had a substantial positive force on self-efficacy for both males and females. They establish that alteration in skin color from dark to light caused an essence or a consequent increase in the self-esteem of their participants and that higher score on physical attractiveness also positively correlated with self-esteem scores.
Haider (2016) stated that when she was only nine years old, my friend gave me bottle of “Fair and Lovely” and she advised me that I should put this cream all over the face and neck. I enjoyed my childhood in the sun. I was busy in horse riding, playing tennis etc. and everyone called me ‘Kaali Kaloti’ (dark-skinned woman). My sister was born with fairer skin, and compared to a sweet, fair “China doll.”
Another study is conducted which is based on classroom-level interactions between all staff and members that contribute to discrimination in school. The findings of this study are that colorism affects the educational direction.
This study narrates the practices of African Americans, Latinos, and Asian Americans with relation to skin color. This study reveals that those people who have light skin tone get more and clear advantages. Whereas dark skin tones people are more real, social and legal than lighter skin. But they do not get benefits.
Another research is conducted in Columbia’s university “University of Missouri”. The reason of this study is to find out the relationship between skin color and level of perceived physical attractiveness and how influential the role of race is on perceptions of physical attractiveness. After data collection, analyze the results which refer that skin color affect the physical attractiveness.
In 2004, McMullin & Cairney investigated the relationship between self-esteem, age, class and gender. The results of this study were that there is a relationship between age and self-esteem. Self-esteem increases with age. Social class also effects on self-esteem level. Lower class women and men have the lowest self-esteem.
Mandara & Murray (2000) investigated the effects of marital status, family income on African American adolescent’s self-esteem and they found our the results that the married persons have high self-esteem level as compared to unmarried persons. And family income matters with self-esteem.
In 1997, Kawachi, Kennedy, Lochner, & Prothrow-Stith studied in relation between income inequality and social capital and mortality. The results of their study were that inequality of income has strong relation with mortality and social capital. Lower income increase mortality rate.
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