The Emergence and Development of Mesopotamia


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People called Paleolithic (Old Stone) falling around 11000 B.C.E they were no humans, meaning that they did not stay or lived in one place because they were constantly on the move hunting animals, they lived in tribes in small groups they found refuge in caves where they would paint on the walls and with a passing of times or centuries these people became more intelligent and began to domesticate animals. According to archeologists in 40,000 B.C.E Paleolithic era ended, and Neolithic period began.

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Between 40,000 and 11,000 B.C.E the temperature used to be very low, some humans moved, and some stayed. It is in the time of Neolithic era around 8000 B.C.E where humans discovered agriculture and farming and to take care of it they built small villages near rivers and settled in them and transformed into sedentary unlike paleolithic who would constantly move hunting animals.

Speaking of Advantages and Disadvantages, during permanent settlements the biggest positive gain was agriculture meaning people could control supply of food whereas hunters and gatherers ate what they could find or what they hunted, and more food brought more people but apart from that the development of agricultural societies lead to hierarchy, with a ruling class developing whereas hunter-gatherers were egalitarian and there was also gender inequality.

Mesopotamia had small regions with separate governments and leaders, due to lack of centralized government, region was prone to internal fighting among kings for land and resources, the land was fertile, but it was prone to flooding and other natural disasters. Mesopotamians could attribute the chaotic weather to the will of God, they found comfort believing that they were at mercy of the gods rather than the mercy of nature’s anarchy, some of the most powerful god they believed were Enki (God of water) and Enlil (God of Sky) During that period Sumerian invented writing and with this invention of writing Laws of Hammurabi and piece of literature Epic of Gilgamesh 2500 B.C.E was recorded and also the wheel which was used for making pottery in 3500 B.C.E and they used irrigation to get water to their crops and they built weapons and weaved cloth from wool.

Mesopotamia provided fertile soil for farming which made it important for Mesopotamiansto grow crops and develop a society, The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers carried a fine, fertile soil called silt and each year rivers flooded which carried silt across Mesopotamian land resulting settling into the soil and layer of moist rich earth was left for planting, but sometimes they had heavy flooding and entire villages swept away.

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