This study and as well as the aim is about the factors that causes students to procrastinate when completing their assignments which results in affecting their academic performance in Finland and Pakistan. Moreover, the reason of choosing this research so that students in universities would not procrastinate anymore on completing assignments and manage their time more effectively. Finally, this topic is important for all the university students as 90% of the students in the world procrastinate to some extent when completing their assignment in which at the end students gain low grades.
According to Edwards (2012) procrastination is defined as a headstrong based on a deliberate choice to take part in less essential or more pleasurable acts, despite the fact that they are less urgent, to nonsensically put off less appealing or more critical jobs till the latest possible time. Moreover, to be slow or late about doing something that should be done and to delay doing something until a later time because you do not want to do it due to laziness.
First, Hussain and Sultan (2010) states that procrastination influence college students to delay and postpone their academic work getting to be irresponsible and disregarding their academic duties. In addition, Hussain and Sultan illustrates the negative consequences of procrastination such as stress in which it effects the self-efficacy, impulsiveness and organizational behavior of the students. Furthermore, self-efficacy is individuals beleifs about their abilities to deliver assigned levels of performance that exercise impact over occasions that influence their lives. Self-efficacy convictions decide how individuals feel, think and motivate themselves.
Next, according to Lindblom-Ylänne, Saariaho, Inkinen, Haarala-Muhonen and Hailikari (2015) the process of procrastination is being utilized to depict distinctive kinds of procrastination shifting from active to passive procrastination. An example of passive procrastination is delaying tasks and assignments until the last moment due to an inability to make the decision to act in a convenient way. Moreover, postponing the chosen time for starting study process, moving booked organised study periods for the future and taking part in study insignificant behaviour in which it affects sudents assignments, in contrast to active procrastination which is exceptionally energetic by time weight, and can finish assignments before due dates and accomplish attractive results. In addition, typical of active procrastinators is an inclination for working under strain. Furthermore, active procrastination is distinct from procrastination in general, and should be alluded to as ‘active delay.’
Svartdal, Pfuhl, Nordby, Foschi, Klingsieck, Rozental, and Rębkowska, (2016) states that procrastination is a common problem across all countries and is defined as a logical and hypothetical review of quit essential self-regulatory failure. Moreover, to intentionally postpone a proposed plan or assignment regardless of hoping to be worse off for the delay, it includes the postponement of a clear or convert act that is necessary of individual significance.
In another important contribution to this debate Hall and Hall (1990) argue that monochronics encounter time as a direct succession in which all duties should be considered important, as time is continually streaming into the past and occasions can’t regularly be repeated. In addition, monochronics tend to focus around one assignment at any given moment and require some investment administration plans seriously. Moreover, monochronic students are inclined to follow the process of doing one thing at a time, concentrate on the task, take time commitments seriously and are committed first to the task. According to Hall and Hall (1990) polychronic students tend to handle multiple things intermittently during a time period and to emphasize the number of completed transactions and the number of people involved, rather than the adherence to time schedule. Moreover, polychronics take part in numerous assignments in the meantime and are just excited without hesitation as conclusive due dates. Furthermore, polychronic students do many things at once, considers time commitments an objective to be achieved only if possible which mainly effects in their time management.
Lindblom-Ylänne, et al. (2015) claims the motivational, volitional and situational are factors that promote procrastination in Finland. In addition, low inherent study inspiration, issues in self-control, poor time management and sorting out skills convictions have been appeared to be the main factors in prompting procrastination in Finland. According to Hofstede (1980) Finland with low power distance are inclined towards procrastination and influencing time management with the effects of students academic performance. Moreover, Schwartz (2006) argues that egalitarianism induce students to recognize one another as moral in which students act and promote to laziness which effects students academic achievements.
Hofstede (2010) argues that restraint countries such as Pakistan are less likely inclined to procrastination in contrast to indulgence countries such as Finland which effects it easily. Moreover, Hussain and Sultan (2010) states that in Pakistan, students constraints in time management effects are due to laziness, prioritization and critical thinking were the strong indicators that influences students academic performance in connection to time management. Furthermore, Lindblom-Ylänne, et al. (2015) states the characteristic of self-control which is observing one’s actions, using metacognition, and controlling motivational and passionate states. In addition, if these essential abilities are missing or if they are ineffectively created, it is more sophisticated for a student to control his or her insight, inspiration, actions and feelings, and this absence of control can advance in procrastination of assignments.
Hussain and Sultan (2010) argues that students procrastinate when they cannot set a pace of their figuring out how to meet superior performance inside a duce course of time. Moreover, a portion of the students appear to be acclimated to delay their work and some of the students postpone their academic work as it becomes their habit and later on it turns into their propensity. Furthermore, it unfavorably impacts on students identity, their learning and accomplishment nearly at all levels of studies and in all subjects. In addition, abnormal state procrastination makes students unable to manage and sort out them to accomplish their scholarly objectives causing them sadness, nervousness and stress.
According to Hofstede (1980) Pakistan is less likely to procrastinate in contrast to Finland due to a combination of higher power distance and higher uncertainty avoidance. Moreover, Finland is inclined towards procrastination in universities due to a combination of lower power distance and low uncertainty avoidance. In addition, Lindblom-Ylänne, et al. (2015) argues that issues in self-control, together with underachievement and the avoidance of errands seen as requesting, are normal for a self-handicap methodology which has been appeared to be identified with procrastination. Furthermore, self-handicap includes making impediments to effective performance on duties that the individual thinks about critically.
Rosseti (2011) argues that another reason that students may procrastinate in their studies is motivation. In addition, two motivations had been detected in which they are intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Moreover, intrinsic motivation is a drive to achieve an errand or movement that comes inside and extrinsic motivation is a drive to achieve an undertaking or action in view of outer elements like prizes. Lindblom-Ylänne, et al. (2015) maintains that panicking of disappointment and feeling stressed always about the job in which it needs to be done and at the end be upsetting causes procrastination. Nasrullah and Saqib Khan (2015) argues that most of the time students confront issues like task and assignment issue and uncertainty, so they begin to procrastinate due to the fact that they need organizational skills. Thus, students will not have the capacity to arrange duties as indicated by their needs, so they get confused effectively ending up in procrastination. Time management is very basic to any college student, and it is one of the keys to higher academic accomplishments.
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