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The Growing Problem of Water and Resource Scarcity in Pakistan

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Great and special gratitude to God for giving me opportunity, ability, patience and strength to undertake the study. Special thanks to my parents (Mr. and Mrs. Syed Ali Zaidi) for funding my studies and moral support at University. Gratitude to JMC Academy for valuable institutional support. I am really thankful to my instructor Mr. Tim Kelly for remarkable good will and tirelessly responding to my work.

Abstract

Pakistan is facing a lot of water shortage that is going to break the limit in the country in the coming years. Recently, the Indus River System Authority highlighted that the Indus irrigation system was the world’s largest irrigation system for the summer season but because of crisis it is critical and it had delayed the growing of the country’s main cash crops which includes cotton as well. Pakistan water demand increased since 1990 to 2013. Pakistan is right now at emergency stage because of water crisis the glaciers are melting and the crisis of water is at alarming rate according to the resources the availability of water has decreased a lot like per person since 1951. Just because of lack reservoirs, Pakistan’s losing its market value in an economy about 10 billion RS per annum and it is high period to take the issue of water shortage as a matter of death and life just for the sake of the economy of Pakistan. Finally, we recommend that government has to take some action on this matter they have to make dams and should improve canal water supply management to safe the future of Pakistani peoples.

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Introduction

When someone cannot access to clean water for drinking that person called as water insecure but when a majority of people of a city started being water insecure for a long time then the city called as water scarce. Water scarcity do not have any easy definition but it is one the most disaster reality that’s going to be done in near future and will face by mankind if they could not understand the value of water. Scarcity if water can be called as water shortage, water crisis. There are several reasons of the water shortage it may be occurred by climate change for example floods, weather, or can because of increased pollution last but not the least the overuse of water by human.

The reason behind conducting the research is to make a public service awareness short film. There are different emotions and different treatment when it comes to social awareness film so in this whole report I am going to look into different academic journals and articles to collect the information regarding different techniques mood and emotions for a public service message.

Water Shortage in Pakistan

Pakistan stands amongst those countries who has negative consequences due to un conditional climate change. Pakistan is the 9th largest country in the world and the growth of population and the downfall on agricultural, urban and in development sectors increasing pressures in an environment along with that the un conditional climate changes effecting agriculture and affecting to the economy of Pakistan as well. The problems are flooding, weather behavior and sewage system. It is declared that climate change is the biggest problem because of that all progress targets from human life to education, working. Along with that one of the major problems is the wastage of water by human. Mostly Pakistan water source is a canal irrigation system. Pakistan major Region like Sindh Punjab and Baluchistan are dependent on river water

Reasons of the Study

Right now, Pakistan and some other countries is facing water crisis as its really important to showcase this matter globally, so I have decided to make a short film on it so everyone can be aware of the situation going these days. Well some of my reasons of the study are

  1. To know how the water shortage is affecting Pakistan?
  2. What possible reasons are to relate my film on this issue
  3. To investigate that in what ways the water shortage is affecting our life’s

Research Question

Studying towards water scarcity the research question will be What are the problems that made water shortage in Pakistan? How to make a social awareness film which can relate the whole theme to the audiences?

Literature Review

Once upon a time when Pakistan was fully resourceful country but now the country is deficit by water crisis. The water resources of Pakistan mainly depend on the Indus river system. The lack of rainfall and unconditional weather is the barrier for agriculture. Iram Khalid and Ishrat Begum (2013) in their paper study present situation of Water crisis that water is the most essential gift from god for sustaining the life on earth. The availability of food and for good healthy life fresh water is really important. Iram Khalid and Ishrat Begum indicates that the quantity and increasing demand of fresh water has made a huge gap between its availability and demand the only way is to construct additional water reservoir such as dams. Because this problem is getting bigger day by day every province is phasing the rift. The kalabagh dam will going to construct in Punjab the dam will be of 38 million-acre feet water dropping to sea. But the other problem is that three other provinces Sindh, K.PK and Baluchistan are not in favor of Kalabagh dam for their royalty related issues. Sindh province believe that storage of Indus water can seriously affect their ecosystem. Peoples of provinces just not want to share their water and they always keep their own interest over the national interest and along with that Irma khalid and Ishrat Begum said that the Pakistan has also failed to have any kind of water policy that’s why it is an alarming situation for Pakistan. The current availability of water in Pakistan is about 1000m3 that clearly shows the scarcity in Pakistan. This is a show called notice for political vision, pragmatic policies and an affective river regulation in Pakistan.

Iram Khalid and Mazhar Abbas Khan (2016) in their study presents the current water scarcity A major human security challenge to Pakistan. Iram Khalid and Mazhar Abbas Khan (2016) says that water is an essential ingredient for the preservation of life on earth. The quality life of human beings, businesses, agriculture, medicines all are connected with the fresh water accessibility. The lack of water has made the demands high. Including Pakistan there are many other countries of the world specially in Asia the high population rates, climatic changes, governance malfunctions have made over stressed the water resources of the country. Iram khalid and Mazhar Abbas Khan said that water is not the only threat to Pakistan. The water stressed conditions in the country always misused by some pressure groups with in the country to exploit the people on their agendas. Iram Khalid and Mazhar Abbas Khan said in their paper that these factors recommend and some suggestions for both state and public in order to face the challenge by doing more with something else.

Abdul S. Khan, Shuhab D. Khan, Din M. Kakar (2013) in their paper study the declining water resources in Quetta valley region Pakistan. Quetta is a city of province Balochistan and in water shortage, land subsidence and water quality problems. It’s one of the largest populated cities in Balochistan. The major crops grown in Queeta includes Dry fruits, grapes, apricots, apples and wheat. The main source of water access in this region is ground water for both domestic and agricultural use. Abdul S. Khan, Shuhab D. Khan, Din M. Kakar found that this work presents global positioning system (GPS) data and assessment of different variations in water levels. The quetta valley has vegetation and several types of plants along with a wide range of shrubs on the hills and near areas. Abdul S. Khan, Shuhab D. Khan, Din M. Kakar found that the agriculture is growing and ground water is the main source of water for agriculture in Queeta but the water is declining and in action additional wells made just to save the agricultural use and the water was used by farmers.

Iftikhar and Chaudhry (2010) figured out in their studies. The Pakistan has only two major dams since their independence 1. Mangla and 2. Tarbela. These dams are losing their storage capacity due to stagnant water resources the water availability is decreasing. Iftikhar and Chaudhry also highlighted the problem on agriculture sector and on the life of peoples. They also highlight on the proposed and ongoing water projects and said to have a proper plan and management in order to fulfill the future requirements by managing solutions for water.

Pakistan is a country where food arrange by agriculture and the agriculture totally depends on water accessibility. Lack of water resources can put serious impacts the country economy. The amount of water is declining also because of population growth. Pakistan is said to be one of those countries which are dealing with water scarcity. Magsi and Salman (2012) in their report of a study they raise a point on mismanagement and failed water distribution policies because of them social conflicts and inter provincial occurred. The report based on several issues where Magsi and Salman try to evaluate the crisis of water in Pakistan province. Magsi and Salman said that there is need to develped the Indus river system policies.

Water is the best product on nature and every individual have to take care of that as in a report from United Nations they had already warned us that the glaciers are melting because of global warming. In a country like Pakistan it’s really important to take this statement seriously because the increasing in population and manufacturing companies are expanding day by day so the water demands is placed great each time. Pakistan will be the country who is going to be the victim by melting of glaciers along with that its already facing the problem of water shortage.

David Passig, Sigal Eden, Mally Heled (03 April 2007) state that the study was examined under (VR) Virtual reality technology. The new immigrant student in a country was called for that. They divided students into two groups an experimental group where they choose the local student who will watch the life of a new immigrant student in abroad and other was a control group means immigrant student who watched the movie on the same subject along with that David Passig, Sigal Eden, Mally examined another group of teen immigrants who gives them the result that they wanted. Right after that they ask all groups to fill up the questionnaire and conduct personal interviews as well both before the experiment and after the experiment too. David Passig, Sigal Eden, Mally Heled found the results that shows the experience of a virtual reality is based on emotions and social experiences of new immigrant students but after the movie intensified the social feelings was found only in the control group.

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