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Politics of identity implies when individuals having a specific religious, social, racial, ethnic, or cultural personality, form political partnerships to advance their own particular advantages or concerns without respect for the advantages of a bigger political cluster. Politics of identity is seen in Pakistan. Pakistan is a pluralist nation and various groups are present, that belongs to different identities. In spite of the fact that Pakistan got freedom on the basis of religious identity yet individuals were and still are increasingly sorted out based on ethnic identities. Numerous linguistic gatherings and ethnicities are present in Pakistan and each has its very own culture and qualities which are different from one another. The eminent of them includes Punjabi, Sindhi, Pukhtun, Baloch and Bengali which was later on separated from Pakistan and form a separate country. At the time of separation, Pukhtun and Baloch needed a free state yet collectively figured out how to add with Pakistan on the conviction that they would be given the status of a self-ruling Muslim majority state inside a confederation. But later, when Pakistan came into being all the expectations died. The differences or divisions among all the ethnic gatherings can be seen when Pakistan appeared, although it was formed on the premise of two nation theory and religious identity. Furthermore, with the expansion of Muhajir gathering, circumstance turned out to be far more atrocious. The Sindhi ethnic gathering began a movement against Muhajirs and strains was heightened.
In Pakistan, numerous ethnic groups are present which is unique in relation to one another and have divergent interests which even make clashes and which then cause further political and societal issues. Sometimes, the people of different ethno-linguistic groups based on their concerns or agenda are used by wrong hands. Being an ethnically pluralist country is definitely not a major issue however the management of these gatherings is the test. Nonetheless, Pakistan has seen more terrible after effects of misusing or mishandling the diverse society e.g., the East Pakistan’s partition. It had been an Ethno-linguistic clash that prompted the partition of East Pakistan.
There are various effects of ethnic pressure or identity politics which can result in critical issues like financial crisis and unstable political framework. The division between distinct ethnic groups causes chaos within the general public. Feeling of hatred towards the nation or political authority is established among the ethnic minorities when one group is conveyed more with respect to the others. Thus, they started movements for their own rights and personal identity and demands for an independent separate nation to exercise their own identity and culture. Their battle for an unbiased nation, results in different problems e.g., fear based oppression and fanaticism imply a civil conflict within the nation.
Terrorism disintegrates the inward system of the country. The identical situation can be seen in Pakistan. The Baloch rebel movement is an ideal case of ethnic divisions. Baluchistan has been left denied when contrasted with different provinces of Pakistan. They’re no longer given equal opportunities compared to alternative ethnic groups. This inequality has brought on a rebellious mind-set towards different ethnicities prompting the insurgency within the region. Ethnic pressures give upward thrust to the imbalance political framework making it hard for the legislature to function appropriately. Beyond this, it additionally aggravates the economic and social structure of the country. Besides, a partitioned society can be utilized by outer forces to destabilize the nation. This issue can be seen in the case of Bengal. Due to the inward differences, the Bengali started a rebel movement which was utilized by India against Pakistan. They also began “Mukti bahini.” They prepared individuals to utilize them as radicals. Resulting in portioning the East wing of the nation.
Ethnic pressures has always remained high, which results in political insecurity. The increase in the gap between various groups prompts to the condition of instability. This may occur due to poor governance. The distance between different ethnic groups also increases due to the unequal distribution of assets among the provinces. This may be seen virtually that Punjabi’s because the most famous group gets maximum of the advantages in comparison to the alternative ethnic groups like Baloch’s and Pashtuns. The other ethnic groups do not get as much of the benefits as the Punjabi’s gets. However, they are underprivileged for their fundamental necessities like they do not have enough access on water, fuel, healthcare, power, and education. Alternatively, Punjab is greater evolved in framework and requirements of existence. This causes a feeling of inequality and disintegration among ethnic clusters.
The battle for power among distinct political clusters is some other aspect that is in charge of incitement of ethnic pressures. Politicians may utilize a specific group to accomplish their interests and make obstacles to raise pressures for the government which is in power. The role of army is also responsible for ethnic deterioration within the state equipment. The army has control over power for almost four times and gagged the democratic procedure. In military, the Punjabi’s are dominant like other organizations. The continuing operations by army in different regions have a great deal with the identity and ethnic politics. Compulsion by using the country to smother the rights of its citizens particularly the rights of minorities can also result in the mistrust among its nationals. For instance the requests of equal illustration via the Bengali’s and coercive conduct of nation to smother their voices brought about Bengali’s secessionist movement prompting partition of East Pakistan.
Identity politics nevertheless remains a significant issue or problem of Pakistani politics. A latest instance of Pashtun Tahafuz Movement (PTM) can be seen in this manner. In 2014 the Pashtun Ethnic network of Baluchistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa began this movement as Mehsud Tahafuz Movement. The primary purpose of the movement was to annihilate landmines from FATA and to prevent intervention via the army. While in 2018 it emerged as an equity movement as it gained importance with the assassination of Naqeebullah Mehsud in a police encounter. Manzoor Pashteen has been an outstanding discern of the movement. The advocates of the PTM affirmed the legislature of grabbing and murder of Pukhtun individuals by intelligence agencies. They considered it a prepared persecution via country in the direction of the Pukhtun individuals all through their take a seat in. They requested to search the missing individuals of Pukhtun network and if they have devoted any crime then put them through proper channel of law. It was considered that PTM was utilized by India to undermine the safety of the country. During the entire situation Pakistan’s armed force was scrutinized particularly their role in the protection tasks within the tribal regions attempting to make a shrewd appearance of the law requirement organizations. It is said by analysists that the movement works under terrorist associations. Also, the main plan of the entire movement that is comprehended is to make a division among the people of distinct ethnic groups. Apart from this movement, various other associations and movements have established to make a condition of revolt in the nation. Baluchistan Liberation Army (BLA) was another association that is endeavoring to utilize the grievances of the Baloch individuals and incite them for a forceful response.
The main contention is that having distinct ethnicities is complicated yet this isn’t the situation in Pakistan however the main problem is mismanagement of numerous groups. The differences are only established when groups are segregated in terms of their cultural values. Equal treatment to all ethnic groups is needed in order to prevent the chances of conflict among them. Feeling of solidarity or harmony as a nation is needed not on the idea of specific culture of specific ethnic group. So for this reason seeking common benefit or interest is important. Ethnic polarization ought to be ceased by the resistance of any discrimination of a specific ethnicity particularly minorities by means of anybody. Tolerance and admiral for other’s identity is needed for the prevention of ethnic division. These measures can be achieved if they’re supported by individuals who are in power and authority. The government should function via maintaining the minor groups in confidence and giving them equality within the selection making manner so that they are happy by using the guidelines which are later to be applied on them.
Identity remains a significant issue of Pakistani politics. Various ethnicities are the excellence of a country yet it can destroy the entire framework of the country. Ethnic differences has hurt the national cohesion more than all else even pioneers of the country are not able to accumulate all the ethnic clusters at one point of harmony on the idea of religious ideology. Unequal dispersion of assets among the gatherings or groups and amateurish conduct of security powers in sidelined territories results in ethnic pressures. The purpose is possibly that the leaders of the country are not able to loose themselves from supreme legacy and give self-ruling power to each unit of the country. The complaints of the minority groups who have been underestimated through the state mechanism are expanding and there’s nevertheless no legitimate channel to cope with their protests. The issue is that it has been distinguished as a significant instrument by the adversaries to weaken the security of the country. It has been utilized often to undermine Pakistan.