Amabile's research concludes that evaluation, rewards, constraints, and competition affect creativity in a negative way. When being evaluated, students might not make as much of an effort to be creative. Students might be more focused on getting answers right and meeting requirements when they are being evaluated on an assignment. In these situations, creativity is the last thing on their mind. Similarly, when students receive rewards, they are not as creative. A reward can be extremely distracting when it comes to creativity. For example, if a teacher offers a reward (extra credit) for participation in an art contest, students might not produce as creative of work as if they were entering the contest without a reward just because they wanted to. A student might just complete the bare minimum for the contest just to receive the extra credit. Competition can also restrict creativity. Competition can place a student under stress and in turn hinder creativity. In an art competition, students might feel stressed out enough that they cannot come up with creative ideas. Similarly, students might not be able to perform under the pressure that competition brings. Constraints can negatively affect creativity by restricting the freedom that people have to create something the way they want to. For example, in a high school art class, a student might have a creative idea that might be controversial. The teacher might place constraints on the class to not create anything controversial, which in turn negatively affects that student's creativity. Because of this, the student will have to come up with another idea that is not as good as the first one.
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Where intelligence focuses on the product of thought, cognition focuses on the process of thinking. Where intelligence is what someone knows, cognition is how one knows. Where intelligence involves the contents of thoughts, cognition involves the depth and breadth of understanding. Where intelligence is quantitative, cognition is qualitative. Intelligence focuses on tests, while cognition focuses on observations. Intelligence emphasizes focus on control and prediction, while cognition focuses on understanding and explanation.
Shame and guilt are both negative moral emotions that one might feel when they do something wrong. Even though they are both negative moral emotions, they are very different. Shame is a negative feeling that is often paired with self-worth. Shame does not necessarily focus on anything but the way someone feels. In contrast, guilt is the way someone feels when they are focusing on the consequences of what they have done. Guilt is associated with remorse and regret. It is important for teachers to know the difference between the two especially when promoting moral standards in his/her classroom. Promoting shame can often affect a student's self-worth, while guilt is often centered on the wrong behavior that the student has participated in. Even though there are downsides to promoting each emotion, it is probably better to promote guilt because it is focused on the behavior and not the students themselves.
Two important theorists in the intelligence perspective are Thurstone and Gardner. Thurstone’s theory pretty much contradicts Spearman’s theory. He created a list of seven independent factors called Primary Mental Abilities that resemble ACT or SAT type questions. Some of these factors include: number facilities (basic math), reasoning (“A is to B as C is to what?”), memory (reading comprehension), spatial perception (shapes), perceptual speed (timed tests), verbal comprehension (word definitions), and word fluency (antonyms and synonyms). Gardner’s theory involves intelligence as different types of abilities rather than general intelligence. This theory suggests that everyone is good at something. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences include: linguistic (poets, authors, journalists), logical-mathematical (mathematician, computer science, accountant, engineer), musical (musician, composer), spatial (artists, architect, choreographer), bodily-kinesthetic (dancer, athlete, surgeons), interpersonal (teachers, salespeople, counselor), intrapersonal (theologians, priests, rabbis, cleric), and naturalistic (farmers, ecologists, landscapers).
Schemas are described as patterns of thought that organize groups of information and the relationships among information. For example, a stereotype can be considered a schema. A child can process information about a dog, such as it being a four-legged animal, and then automatically think a cow is a dog because it has four legs. In this example, the child organized the information that they had and made an assumption that the cow is also a dog because it has four legs. Equilibrium is the point in which schemas are in balance. No new information is present so there is no need to adapt. In a stereotype example, a child can stereotype that all animals that have four legs are dogs. For a long time, a child might only see dogs in their environment. At this point, the child has no need to adjust his/her schema so they are at equilibrium. However, one day, the child might see a cow and assume that it is a dog. The child’s parent might tell them that the four-legged animal is in fact a cow. They then are at disequilibrium and they are forced to change, or accommodate, their schema. Once this is done, they are at equilibrium again. This process is referred to as adaptation.
IQ scores can vary based upon a child’s home environment. Because of this, minorities, children within a single parent home, children of low-skilled workers, etc. tend to not benefit from IQ testing. A child's home environment can negatively affect IQ scores because kids are often distracted by more pressing matters than IQ tests. Many of the differences in IQ scores can be attributed to cultural bias in the tests (made for Western culture). IQ tests were created for a western culture and do not consider geographical or cultural differences. Low motivation can affect IQ scores because the students might not care enough to perform well. Low socioeconomic status can also affect scores because students are probably thinking about a ton of different things that are more important. For example, it is hard for a student to succeed when taking an IQ test when they are worrying about where their next meal is coming from or where they are sleeping tonight.
There are two stages within the conventional level of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development: mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships and conformity (stage 3), and social system and conscience maintenance (stage 4). A child in stage three might turn to societal norms to make decisions and the consequences that society would impose upon them if he/she made the wrong decision. For example, a student might see another student being picked on at recess. Instead of thinking that it is wrong for people to treat someone that way, they might consider what others in their class think is wrong and what the class might think if you do not step in to help the student. In this stage, a child might think, "Would I be a really bad person for not helping this kid? What must I do for society to consider me a good person?" In response, the student might help the kid out because he/she might think that is what society believes is right. The cognitive prerequisite required for both stages three and four is concrete operations. A child in stage four also turns to societal norms and laws but does not consider whether the laws are right or wrong. They are set in their ways thinking that "if this is the law, it must be right." For example, a child is being bullied at school for not wearing shoes to school. A student might struggle between two thoughts: "It is sad that the kid is being bullied but he is breaking the school rules..." In response, the student might choose not to take up for the kid because he is breaking the rules and rules are in place to maintain order.
The three components of adolescent egocentrism include the imaginary audience, the personal fable, and the invincible fable. The imaginary audience pattern of thought involves the belief that others always notice the way you look and act. For example, a student might take extra time to look a certain way before coming to school because they falsely believe that everyone is looking at the way they look and what they are wearing. The personal fable pattern of thought can be described by the thought "you do not know what it is like to be me." This thought is provoked by the realization that although others can observe your behavior and appearance, they are not always looking or thinking about you. For example, a student in this component of egocentrism might realize that although a girl he likes might notice him, it does not mean that she is picking apart his every move and judging what he is wearing. The invincible fable is where a child feels like they are invincible. For example, a teen might text and drive a lot. He might see a commercial on texting and driving and the consequences that could follow. He might think, "Oh, that will never happen to me. How often does that actually happen? I am probably way better at texting and driving than those people."