People who lived in Uzbekistan is about 55,000 to 70,000 years ago which is as early as the Palaeolithic Period (Old Stone Age). In the 1st millennium bce in the fertile region around the Amu Darya, the silk road between china and Europe act as a place for trading and culture exchange. Alexander the Great entered of Cyrus the Great Achaemenid empire in the 4th century BC. He stopped near Marakanda (Samarkand) and then married Roxana, a local chieftain’s daughter, after conquering the Sogdians in their mountain fortresses. The region, however, was also an important centre of intellectual life and religion during the same centuries. Zoroastrianism was the dominant religion in the region until the first centuries after Christ, but Buddhism, Manichaeism and Christianity attracted many followers as well. During the 8th century the Muslims Arabs came to conquest the Central Asia, which they have the desire to spread their new faith. Firstly, they invaded Transoxiana though sporadic raids during the conquest of Persia in the seventh century. However, the Iranians and soghdians people aren’t able to protect due to lack of strong leadership and internal divisions. Besides that, in the 9th century, the Turks started to enter the region from the North, they created states, many of which were Persian in nature. The Turkic leader of Khaorazm united Transoxiana and Iran as single state. Transoxiana remained successful and wealthy while preserving the Perso-Islamic identity of the region. But a new incursion of northern nomads soon changed this situation.
In the 13th century is where the Mongol conquer Central Asia led by Genghis Khan. The Mongolian who is the one that give a big impact in the points in the history of the region. They last so long because they create a tradition that the legitimate ruler in only related by Genghis Khan. Other than that, Uzbek name probably adopted from the Golden Horde, Öz Beg (Uzbek) Khan. During his ruler the Iranian people were moved in several places of Central Asia. Transoxiana started its last cultural flowering, centred in Samarqand, under Timur (Tamerlane). The state began to split after Timur, and Uzbek tribes had conquered Central Asia as a whole by 1510. At the end of 16th century, the uzbek states of Bukhoro and Khorazm has countless of war with each other and the Persians and they soon become weaken and also because of competition of the power and the throne among the khans. The cities of the Silk Road began to decline during this period as ocean trade flourished. The khanates have been isolated by wars with Iran and weakened by northern nomadic attacks.