Table of Contents
- The Beginning of the War
- The Battles
- The Results of the War
The Beginning of the War
The American Revolution was a revolt against Great Britain between 1765 and 1783. There were many key factors that started the big war. The American colonies were first founded by people trying to escape religious persecution in England. They were afraid that as the British government became more involved in the affairs of colonies, people began to worry that they would once again lose their freedoms. After the French and Indian War. The British were in debt and need money so they made a decision to make different taxes on colonists and made more laws on them. This made them turn to a lot of protests. The British didn't like that so they passed the Intolerable Acts. To add to that the British made a British Blockade. The colonist decided to form the First Continental Congress to see what they should do about this all. To make matters worse on March 5, 1770, a couple of British soldiers shot and killed several people while being harassed by a mob in Boston which was called the Boston Massacre. The top ten battles that changed the of the war were Battle of Lexington and Concord, Battle of Bunker Hill, The battle of Quebec, Battle of Trenton, The battle of Charleston, Battle of Saratoga, The battle of Rhode Island, The battle of Kings Mountian, The battle of Cowpen, and The Battle of Yorktown.
The first battle was the Battle of Lexington and Concord started on Fought on April 19, 1775. This battle was known as the "shot heard round the World". This battle started when General Thomas Gage, the British governor of Massachusetts, received instructions from Great Britain to seize all stores of weapons and gunpowder that the colonist had there and was met with the colonists ready to fight back. Paul Revere helped them out by taking his famous ride yelling out " The British are coming!, The British are coming!" At the end of the battle for the colonists they had 49 killed 39 wounded 5 missing and Great Britain had 73 killed; 174 wounded; 53 missing. This was the colonist's first win in the war.
The Battle of Bunker Hill was fought on June 17, 1775. This battle helped gained more confidence in themselves from this battle. America lost this war due to a lack of ammunition. At the end of this battle 268 British soldiers and officers had been killed and another 828 were wounded. The Americans also suffered heavy casualties with 115 killed and 305 wounded. This was a British win but cost a lot of men for them.
The Battle of Quebec was fought on December 31, 1775. This was a campaign to win some battles to gain land in Canada and American had many victories along the waterways from Lake Champlain into Canada but ended in Quebec. This was the first major defeat to the Colonists. The Colonists suffered 60 dead and wounded as well as 426 captured. The British had a small loss 6 killed and 19 wounded. This ended the offensive assault by the colonists in Canada.
The Declaration of Independence was approved on July 4, 1776. This announced and explain separation from Great Britain for the colonies. There was a total of 56 delegates that signed it. The authors where Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert R. Livingston. This was the formal declaration of saying America was at war with Great Britain.
The battle of Trenton was fought on December 26, 1776. General Washington hoped that a quick victory at Trenton would encourage his army more and encourage more men to join the ranks of the Continentals come the new year. Washington ordered his men to cross the cold and icy Delaware River on December 25 which was on Christmas to get to the Hessian troops. This was an extreme victory in the war. Americans suffered 4 wounded casualties and 2 American soldiers froze to death. The Hessians suffered 20 killed and around 100 wounded. 1,000 were captured. This was about ⅔ of the Hessian army that was hired by Britain.
The battle of Charleston was fought between March 29 to May 12, 1780. It started when the British gained control of the South. They fought the American soldiers at Charlestown and bombarded them with shells and wouldn't let them escape without them all being captured. Americans lost many soldiers due to their surrender. This was the worst defeat for the Americans during the war. All colonists here either died or were captured. The British lost 76 men killed and 189 wounded. For the colonists, there were 89 Continentals killed and 138 wounded. '
The Battle of Saratoga was Fought on Sep 19, 1777 – Oct 17, 1777. This was the turning point battle in the war. The American victory at Saratoga boosted the spirit and morale of the Americans and compelled the French to provide aid and support to the revolution. This was the Big mass surrender of the British. The Americans lost 90 and 240 wounded. For the British 440 death, 695 wounded, and 6222 captured.
The Battle of Rhode Island was fought on August 29, 1778. This was the first early attempt at a combined operation between American and French forces. The lost battle here stopped American military momentum gained from Saratoga and the recovery of Philadelphia and showed that alliance with France would not bring a speedy end to the war. The Americans lost 30 dead and 137 wounded, while British losses were 38 dead, 210 wounded.
The Battle of Kings Mountain was fought on October 7, 1780. It was a military engagement between Patriot and Loyalist militias during the Southern Campaign "The battle has been described as 'the war's largest all-American fight'." This battle completely destroyed the left wing of Cornwallis' army. This ended the British invasion into North Carolina and forced Lord Cornwallis to retreat. This battle had American casualties were around 28 killed and 62 wounded. Loyalist casualties were around 290 killed, 163 wounded, and 668 captured. There was only 1 British death in this battle which was a general.
The Battle of Cowpen was fought on January 17, 1781. It was part of the British campaign in the Carolinas so they could gain land again. In the battle American Brigadier General Morgan instructed the militia to skirmish with them but to leave the front line after firing two rounds. The British mistook the repositioning of the Americans as a rout and ran into an unexpected volley of concentrated rifle fire coupled with a cavalry charge and followed by the return of the militia. This caused the British a defeat. The British lost 110 soldiers in the battle and more than 200 wounded, and 500 taken prisoner. For the Americans soldiers had 12 killed and approximately 60 American soldiers wounded.
The final major battle in the American Revolutionary was the Battle of Yorktown. Which was fought on Sep 28, 1781 – Oct 19, 1781. In the battle, Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington as French and American forces trapped the British at Yorktown from the sea and the land on the peninsula. The British surrender at the Battle of Yorktown ended the American Revolutionary War. The French casualties were 60 killed and 194 wounded and the American casualties were 28 killed and 107 wounded: a grand total of 88 killed and 301 wounded. The British official casualty return for the siege listed 156 killed, 326 wounded and 70 missings." This was a big Franco-American victory.
There were more than 1,500 Revolutionary War battles occurred during the American Revolution. In total there was around 6,800 Americans were killed in action, 6,100 wounded, and upwards of 20,000 were taken prisoner. In addition, there were about 17,000 deaths were the result of disease, including about 8,000–12,000 who died while prisoners of war. For the British between 24,000 to 25,000 British soldiers died in the Revolutionary War. This number includes battlefield deaths, deaths from injuries and disease, men were taken prisoner and those who remained missing. For France, There were at least 2112 French citizens who also lost their lives.
The Results of the War
The aftermath of the war was the victory over Great Britain made the new country of the United States of America. The Treaty of Paris was signed on September 3, 1783. The treaty showed that the war between the United States and Britain ended had. Then the Congress of the Confederation ratified the treaty on January 14, 1784. The treaty recognized the colonies' independence and drew lines between British Canada and American territory. America opened new markets and new trade relationships. Then General George Washington became the 1st president of the new United States of America on April 30, 1789. Now America is a striving country and famous for lots of things now. This topic is very important to teach because we need to know the men and women who fought hard for our freedom and we shouldn't take our freedom for granted.