The Main Stages of Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development

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  • Initiative contrabling life benefits
  • Identification with the document
  • Workship confirm understanding
  • Youth
  • Except the identity
  • Need to continue isolation

Initiative contrabling life benefits

This stage means that the child can control and use his / her skills to achieve his / her goals and it may be a guilty feeling. Erikson highlights sibling rivalry as an example where the older sibling can feel rivalry and jealousy against the younger in a battle about the mother's attention. Here is the development of moral sense of responsibility and an understanding of how institutions and different roles work in relation to themselves (the child). Erikson believes that this stage requires much of the parents; that they must comply with the new consensual requirements that the child places on. The child develops relatively easily with responsibility and takes part in duties and work in collaboration with others, for example, with teachers or other adults in their vicinity.

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Identification with the document

School Age's direct contribution to identity development, says Eriksson (1977 b), expressed as "I'm What I Can Learn to Work".

Workship confirm understanding

Erikson (1977 a) believes that at this stage the child will take on and learn the necessary things such as reading, counting and writing. The children learn to do something, thus gaining appreciation, for example, to apply their newly acquired knowledge of the tools in performing a work. Above all, the child learns to complete a job, feeling the pleasure of it, and finds that this has required concentration and goodness to perform. The Erikson warns at this stage is that the danger lies in the sense of inferiority and inadequacy. It is important that the child does not end up in distrust in the failure of the performance of tasks, as this may cause feelings of childlessness and mediocrity. The school is an important part of the child's life and thus the expectations of the family are to prepare and assist in the development to handle failures in a good way. If the child despises his work tools and his ability, it may distrust the community with others. Losing such a hope of such ability, says Erikson, can lead the child back into identity development.


During puberty, when the individual seeks to find himself, his relationships are often uncertain at this stage. In the next stage, the goal is to tie close personal ties in which it is necessary for the individual to find himself during puberty. An intimate relationship requires a safe identity and personal strength to endure with the closeness that occurs. The negative development of this crisis is a rejection and rejection of attitude, and the positive is futuristic and integrated self-image. The biggest concern a young person knows is the ability to decide on a professional identity, Erikson (1977 a) says. At this stage in the life of a human being, the "love" is also about talking to someone else in trying to reach their own identity by projecting their unclear "me" and thus reaching a explanation. The defense against the fragmentation of roles lies in different groups among young people because rejection is part of this process. Erikson emphasizes that this is a "trial" of time found in most societies and classes.

Except the identity

Here, the individual experiences an identity anchorage in the crisis-solving stages of the previously reviewed stages so far that expectations come true to something that it can identify and love. The individual is looking for the familiar, unless there is the feeling of isolation and the avoidance of proximity to appear. "We are what we love," explains Erikson (1977 b) this stage with.

Need to continue isolation

By using the strengths of each review stage, the youth has freed up the search for identity and is now ready to venture into close friendships and relationships. If the youth avoids such relationships, which in themselves are self-giving, it can have deep isolation feelings that can lead to self-esteem. There are a lot of prejudices at this stage, the individual distinguishes the familiar and the stranger. This struggle and experiences of proximity can sometimes be directed towards the same person. The meeting, competition and sexual proximity are ultimately subject to the ethical feeling that characterizes the adult. Erikson points out that the risk at this stage is the avoidance of proximity, in other words isolation. According to the author, this can be interpreted as isolation that protects both parties from meeting the next crisis in maturation productivity.

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