Offshore turbines are typically at least 10 km away from human habitation and, by definition, down at sea level.
Birds can be killed by colliding with the rotating propellers of a wind turbine or they can suffer lethal injuries because of the collision with wind turbine towers, nacelles, or other structures in a wind farm such as guy cables, power lines, and meteorological masts. Various factors influence wind-turbine-induced bird mortality, such as the wind turbine design and layout, bird species, and climatic variables. (Letcher, 2017)There are varieties of the methods that wind turbine developer apply in order to keep the causality rate of the birds low caused by blade heating. Painting wind turbine in different colour, stopping turbines in low wind speed or high migration seasons, using ultra sonic systems to keep birds away from the turbines and etc. are some of the measures that can be taken. All the methods relative to environmental and characteristic of the wind farm and have to be applied with detailed evaluation.
Offshore wind turbines may impact marine species. Wind turbines and their scour protection may change the nearby fish distributions and wind farm constructions may create an artificial reef, which impacts the biodiversity of marine species. The construction of wind turbine foundations and the on-site erection of wind turbine towers may make seawater turbid and introduce additional objects on the seabed (blocking effect), which can cause damages to the benthic fauna and flora and create shadows in the water. In addition to the blocking effect, the noise and the electromagnetic fields around operating wind turbines may lead to negative effects on fishes as well.
Marine mammals such as porpoises and seals may also react to wind farm noise and electromagnetic fields, especially during the construction phase. The maintenance activities of wind turbines, such as part replacements or lubrications, may also have impact on marine species by leaking oils or wastes into the surrounding seawater and creating pollution. With the increasing height of wind turbine towers and the increasing size of offshore wind farms, the environmental impacts of wind farms on fishes and marine mammals are becoming more evident. (Letcher, 2017).
Early indications are positive and suggest that offshore wind farms may actually benefit the marine environment. For example, the gravel or boulders that are often used to prevent scouring of the sea bed around monopile foundations may act as valuable ‘artificial reefs’, encouraging colonisation by a wide variety of marine organisms and increasing biodiversity. Another possibility is to conserve fish stocks by restricting, or even prohibiting, fishing within wind farms. At a time when individual farms with areas in excess of 100 km2 are being planned and built, this is clearly an important option. (A.Lynn, 2012).
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. You can order our professional work here.