In this article we have attempted to introduce the Mongolian Terminological System in sphere of Publishing and to make an analysis on New Term Formation in sphere of printing technology.Key words: printing terms, terminological system in Mongolia, borrowed terms, term formation methods, abbreviated terms.
Tremendous changes occurred during the final decades in all spheres of social life in Mongolia. An increasing number of new terms have been introduced into Mongolian vocabulary. Reflecting reality, the language is becoming more informative. At the same time number of new words is increasing, following in the scientific and technological development in direct proportion.
The topics of this research are the new terms and words connected to the publishing industry and technology. Analysis shows that the lexis related to the sphere of publishing is quite versatile because of the complicated industrial processes, new technics and technology. The highly scientific and technological level of industry and introducing new equipments and technology enrich the Mongolian with new terms, professional words and speech formulas relating to the names of different printing products, industrial processes and machinery.
Terms and New Publishing Terminological System. Scientists don’t have an integrated opinion about a nature of terms. Most of linguistics share the following idea: terms present a group of words that is much more different from literary language and there are a binary opposites term- unterm.G.O.Vinocur and other linguistics note the nominativity of term. “Terms are not special words, but they are only words having special function’’- wrote G.O.
There is an important idea that was put forward by academician V.V.Vinogradov. He payd special attention to the function of a definition as the main peculiarity of various terms. As an ordinary word the term doesn’t name a conception, the conception is attributed to the word.The second important peculiarity of terms is that they are articles of a definite system. The systematic characteristic of terms and the strict inner relevance of terminology are the major attributes of this category of words.T
erm is such a unit of appellatives of specific science that attributes definite conception and in accordance with other appellatives forms a terminological system. Terms of printing terminological system are considered as ‘’new’’ chronologically and connected with periods of economical and scientific changes.
New Mongolian printing terminological system is comparatively young. Its main component has been formed during last two decades of political and economical reform and technical development. Modern terminology of printing is connected closely with an introduction of new progressive techniques and technology especially prepress, digital printing, operative printing, printing on demand, electronic books, information, communication that are introduced into the Mongolian printing system. It is important to note such new specific terms of digital processing of information; Workflow-System, Jobticket, MIS, CIP3, PJTF, Server, Content Management System, CAD, Photoshop, PCS,ZIP, PS, Indesign and others that have an extreme need to get Mongolian version of translation or explanation in Mongolian.
Terminological system has following pecularities; it has a big number of active borrowed words and combination of words over terms that consists of one-word terms. In the mongolian language there is a profound semantics success. First of all there took place the genereal democracy of terms that had been used by only specialists and now they are familiar to the mass of people of different ages and social status.
Borrowing is the most productive method of filling of new Mongolian printing technological vocabulary. Most borrowed words consists of English, German and Russian. Borrowed terminological lexis is classified on formal principle of proximity, prototype of literal borrowing and transformation. Literal borrowings give analyses in accordance with borrowing methods of classification. For example, terms of transliteracy: (anod-анод, aerograph-аэрограф, index-индекс, gel-гель, deckel-декель, diagram-диаграм, element- элемент, electrophotograph –электропотограф, toner-тонер). Terms of transfoneme: apparatus-аппарат, cheque-чек, autotype-автотип, vazeline-вазелин, stereotype-стереотип, heliography-хелиграф, glycerine-глицерин, diapositive-диапозитив, duct roller-дуктор, calendar-каландр, moire-муар.Transformed borrowings are presented by exchanging different suffixes from English and Russian. In this case borrowing process and derivation of new printing terms can be proceed simultaneously with process of lexicalization and suffixation.
The most active method is a morphological method of term formation. Morphological elements of a word determine their position in the terminological system, assist users in finding exact meaning of terms, in interprating and in the proper usage of these terms. There are some ways of term formation: suffixial word formation and word compound. The Suffixial Word formation is the most popular. The productive models are: “-лт” /цахилгаанжуулалт, автоматжуулалт, шимэлт, хуваарилалт, уналт, туршилт, зулгаалт, нэвчилт, ууршилт/; “-гч” / тодруулагч, зүсэгч, тохируулагч, хавчигч, өргөгч, хатаагч, зүлгэгч, сэлгэгч, заагч, хувьсгуур/; “уур” , “үүр”/ өргүүр, хатаагуур, зүлгүүр, сэлгүүр, заагуур, хувьсгагч/; “-лага”, “-лэг (-лэгэ)”, “-лого”, “-лөгө”, “-лга”,-“лго”/ хатаалга, хордуулга, хашлага, сурвалжлага, хавчлага/; Russian terms with-ость/ харилцан тохирох чанар, долгиотох чанар, хүлээн авах чанар, уян чанар, халуунд тэсвэртэй чанар, дамжуулац, багтац, соронзон нэвтрэц/ that express an attribute in Mongolian, too.
New Mongolian publishing terms mainly consists of two-compound words. The most universal models are: adjective+noun (будгийн аппарат, полимер материал, соронзон тoдруулагч, дисперс систем, механик бэхэлгээ); case forms of noun+noun (сэрээт өргөгчтэй авто өргөгч, авианы элэгдэл, хорогдол, тод дүрсний хавтгай, модлогийн нүүрсээр өнгөлөх өнгөлөлт, үрэлтийн эсэргүүцлийг тодорхойлох багаж, хуйлаастай цаасыг байрлуулах хэрэгсэл); mixed combination of words (туршилтын аппарат, хуулбарлалтын аппарат, тасардаг хуудастай блок, хэвлэх цилиндрийн бүрхүүл,тампонон хэвлэл, офсет хэвлэлийн арга).
As the terminological system is in constant motion and development it is conceived that Mongolian doesn’t have adequate terms.As such it happens that foreign words as literally transferred into Mongolian. The literal transferring is accomplished by transliteracy and transfoneme that were mentioned in the examples above.
The third way is the literal translation of terms and terminological compound words: стенография- таталган бичиг, цифровая печать-тоон хэвлэл, каллиграфия-хичээнүй бичиг, оттиск-дардас,экспонирование-гэрлийн үйлчлэл; бумага-цаас (просмолённая-давирхайдсан, реактивная-урвалын, ручного черпания-гараар хийсэн, свеже выработанная-шинэхэн боловсруулсан).
There is a consideretion of specialists that there are more than 25 mln products and services in the world with their articles, marks and sorts …ets. Their nomenclature is reached about 15 mrd.Within industrial terms there is a big quantity of concrete systems’ names, types of technical equipments and kinds of goods and materials in the printing sphere. These similar lexical elements are specific enough for their origin. They represent the proper names of apparature, set mechanism or maсhine as in form of production mark-mark of manufacturer.
Moreover, the object of printing activity is not only material substance of human operation /concrete goods/, but also technical idea itself /certificate,’know-how’, technology/. Apart from nomenclature of goods, trade technology that is borrowed from other spheres of human activity, the practical guidance of printing activity has formed its own specific lexis and terminology that is nessesary for practical implementation of publishing operation.
Within a high degree of termination there is a huge level of nomenclature lexis in publishing. For example: nomenclature of publishing organisations and institutions; nomenclature of publishing machine and equipments; nomenclature of printing types; nomenclature of publishing materials and products; nomenclature of printing technology.
We can classify the printing terminological system into following groups:
Most of terms that were emerged in Mongolian during the past few years aim at expanding the conceptual range in the corresponding terminological systems. There is an occasion, when terms of some branches have formed their new terminonlogical system. One of these brancnes is the terminonlogical system of publishing. Transition to the market relation and science development have been influencing in the creation of new nominations and terms.Necessity of learning new publishing terminology is connected with not only the development and function of this branch and the wish to put in order the systematization, but also to the teaching practice. It is important to translate technique and technology terms into native language correctly and systemize them.
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