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The Mud Density Test Report

Essay details

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Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Equipment/Apparatus
  • Procedures (Sample 2)
  • Results and Analysis
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Precautions
  • References

Introduction

The Density of a mud is the weight per unit volume expressed either in pounds per gallon or pounds per cubic foot. The density of the mud is important in order to maintain both the hydrostatic pressure as well as the pressure exerted by the static mud column the hydrostatic pressure is maintained in order to prevent a kick or ultimately a blow out. The mud weight is a function of both the density and the depth of the mud. This weight (mud weight) is what will determine, with conjunction with the depth, the pressure that will be exerted on the formation while drilling this experiment will be carried out using a mud balance (4 scale metal mud balance) The ranges of the scale are:

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  • 6.5 -23.0 lbs/gal (ppg)
  • 0.79 -2.72 specific gravity (s.g)
  • 49 – 179 lbs/ft3
  • 340 – 1190 psi/1000ft

Equipment/Apparatus

  1. 4 scale mud balance with carrying case
  2. Electric mixer
  3. Weighing balance
  4. Measuring cylinder
  5. Spatula
  6. Beaker

Procedures (Sample 1)

  1. Measure 350ml of water in a measuring cylinder
  2. Measure 35g of bentonite on a weighting balance
  3. Add the 35g of bentonite to the 350ml of water
  4. Using a mixer, mix the water and the bentonite
  5. Stop the mixer and pour the mixture into the 4 scale mud balance cup until it is full
  6. Cover the with the lid
  7. Adjust the rider until the mud balance is at equilibrium
  8. Take readings in ppg, sg, lb/ft3, psi/1000ft

Procedures (Sample 2)

  1. Measure 10g of barite on the weighing balance
  2. Add the 10g of barite to the prepared sample 1
  3. Put it into the mixer to mix the homogeneous mixture
  4. Pour the mixture of sample 2 into the 4 scale mud balance cup until it is full
  5. Cover the cup with the lid
  6. Adjust balance until its balance and then take the readings
  7. Take readings in ppg, sg, lb/ft3, psi/1000ft

Results and Analysis

READINGS (DENSITY) PPG S.G Lb/ft3 Psi/1000ft SAMPLE 1 8.7 1.04 65455SAMPLE 2 8.81.0666460

Discussion

After the experiment has been carried out, and the following results has been obtained for the experiment to determine the density we discovered that sample 1 (mixture of bentonite) our mud had a lower density than sample 2 which is a mixture of the mud and barite. This is because barite is a weighing agent that is used to increase the weight of mud, therefore the sample 2 is to have a higher density as sample 1 because of the presence of barite.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the mud density test is a very important test that is carried out to determine the density of mud, from this experiment we also observed that the density of sample 2 (mixture of barite bentonite and water) has a heavier density that sample 1 (mixture of bentonite and water) because of the presence of barite which acts as a weighing agent and it increses the density.

Precautions

  1. I avoided error due to parallax by taking my reading at the lower meniscus
  2. I ensured that my 4 scale mud balance was calibrated before my measuring commenced
  3. I ensured that the cup of mud of the mud balance was wiped dry before I balanced it on the knife edge
  4. I ensured the mixer cup did not come in contact with the blade to avoid mud from splashing

References

  • Drilling fluid technology by engr. dr.e.e.okoro
  • Drilling mud manual by engr seteyeobot ifeanyi

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