Cigarette smoking has adverse effects on the human mouth given that it activates devastating reactions of the numerous microbiomes present in the mouth of an average human being. Studies establish dental caries and periodontal diseases as the commonest ailments to affect man. At the same time, they reveal that some of the present microbiomes particularly bacteria are responsible for the illnesses (Wade, 2013). However, the bacteria are harmless if not activated by harmful lifestyle habits such as smoking and diet. On the same note, the diseases are noninfectious which means that one has to activate the bacteria in his or her body to become ill. In this regard, smoking accelerates the development of tooth decay and gum diseases in smokers. Interestingly, the prevalence of the conditions is not dependent on geographical locations, which means that any tobacco user is at risk of developing one or both medical conditions. However, quitting the habit reduces the chances of the illnesses. Therefore, besides diet, smoking augments the chances of developing periodontal and dental caries among other health conditions that have devastating effects on people’s quality of lives.
Besides health related medical conditions, tobacco use reduces the chances of survival for cancer patients. Longitudinal studies reveal that cigarette smoking increase overall mortality rates for cancer patients receiving medical treatment regardless of the affected body organ. Some of the most affected cancers include leukemia, neck/head, and lung in males while women suffer most from melanoma, uterus, and ovary and breast cancers (Warren et al., 2012). However, quitting reduced mortality rates given that the body returns to its normal functions thus helping the defense mechanism via white blood cells to function to the optimum. Numerous alterations in the body functions reduce the effects of drugs used to manage cancer. Therefore, smokers have to quit the practice if they have to enjoy the maximum benefits of cancer treatment. Modern medical expertise has higher chances of improving the quality of people’s lives, but patients have to play their parts.
Tobacco use has devastating effects on DNA methylation, which alters the body’s natural defense against illnesses. Consequently, tobacco users are prone to a broad range of medical conditions because of a decrease in bodies’ immunity. As noted earlier, cancer patients have increased chances of death even when under treatment if they continue to use tobacco. The ability of the body to return to normal methylation after quitting the habit explains the higher chances of survival in cancer patients who stop the practice. However, the number of years and packs that a person has smoked determines the speed at which the body normalizes its operations after quitting the habit. In reality, tobacco use is a leading cause of death in the world as its more than seven thousand chemicals affect each organ system. Consequently, it leads to a broad spectrum of chronic obstructive pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. At the same time, it is responsible for several cancers especially lung cancer because it causes oxidative stress, inflammation and DNA damage (Zeilinger et al., 2013). Therefore, smoking reduces the life expectancy of smokers by several years according to the amount of exposure to the chemicals.
In the United Kingdom, smoking causes the deaths of females at the age of between fifty and seventy years. According to Pirie, Peto, Reeves, Green, & Beral (2013), tobacco use reduces the life expectancy of women by an average of ten years. In essence, smoking before the age of forty of years then quitting has significant negative health effects but continuing the habit after age forty, increases adverse health effects by ten times. People who quit tobacco use before their fortieth birthday avoid more than ninety percent of preventable mortality. On the same note, stopping the habit before the age of thirty years prevents ninety-seven percent of chances of death. In both the United States and the UK, tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable deaths. Nevertheless, quitting the practice at a young age has more benefits than waiting until one reaches forty years. Therefore, it is advisable to stop tobacco use before the age of thirty because at this stage people are mature enough to make informed decisions. The practice is responsible for many health conditions including osteoporosis, which reduces the quality of life and productivity.
In addition to mouth related illnesses and various types of cancer, tobacco use has adverse effects on bone mineral density, which in turn leads to osteoporosis. Although osteoporosis is a common ailment, in reality, it is costly and morbid because it affects the strengths of bones. One of the primary causes of osteoporosis in smokers is alterations of intestinal calcium absorption and calciotropic hormone metabolism (Yoon, Maalouf, & Sakhaee, 2012). Fortunately, the effects of smoking are reversible which gives smokers a chance to redeem their health as long as they quit the habit and practice healthy lifestyles. However, stakeholders should establish stringent measures to reduce the effects of passive. At the same time, it is essential to offer civic education to reduce exposure to secondary smoke to children from ignorant parents. Such measures would reduce the adverse effects of smoking on more people in the United States and other parts of the world.
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