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The Observation of a Child Called Brook

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Background Information

  • Age – 4
  • Gender – Boy
  • Time and location – Smyrna park 6:30pm – 7:30 pm

My child observation is done with four-year-old Brook, son of mine sister in law. The observation take place in June 6, 2019 at Smyrna park for one hours. The park was crowded with children and adult. The park has large playground area with slide, swings, see-saw, jungle Jim and include with open area with variety playground equipment. When Brook and his mother enter to the playground, Brook run way from his mother to the playground. He starts hopping in one foot to the stair to go to the slide. As he gets ready to slide, he smiles and said, ‘mom mom watches me.’ After he repeat the several slide then he goes to climbing rope ladder and swing. When he was climbs a rope one of the kids accidentally hit him on his back with the ball. He starts crying and come to his mother. After a while he go back to his play ground and make one friend and start playing with ball with his friend. Later he start playing and chasing each other with his friend as police man and bad guy. During my observation I able to notice social, physical and emotional development to gain a better sense child behavior and development appropriate for the age.

Physical Observation

First, I examined Brook physical observation. According to his mother, Brook weight is 38 pound and height is 40 inches. The child weight and height is in normal range for his age and he have a slim body. In my opinion, he has a slim body because of his health eating habits in the house. Base on his mother response I notice vegetable and fruit is mandatory in house. I also notice Brook enjoy climbing ladders, jumping, running and hopping one foot to the stair to get to the slides. His activities in the playground show that he masters gross motor skill for his age. Due to time and location I was not able to see fine motor skill but I saw him pick up a stick from the ground, hold like a pencil and draw a line in the ground.

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Social Skills

Secondly, I able to observe Brook social behavior. From my observation, he spent most of his time play by himself rather interacting with other children. During early childhood, children make tremendous advance in social skill and behavior (Underwood and Rosen, 2011). There playing activities involve other children. They learn how share, cooperate and comfort other. Even though Brooks is not outgoing boy, I notice he smile to other kid, he talk the kid if they talk him and he able to make one friend at last. In my opion Brook social interaction is not fully developed. But his language skill was fully developed (as evident when he hit by the ball he able tell what happen to his mother rather than crying). As self control and empathy is fully developed he don’t want to hit the child B at that moment. But later, both played together.

Stage of Development

According to Piaget theory, Brook would be grouped under proportional stage. This stage occurs roughly between the age 2 to 7. During the preoperational stage, children also become increasingly adept at using symbols, as evidenced by the increase in playing and pretending. For example, a child is able to use an object to represent something else, Brook use a stick to as a pencil and draw a line in the ground.. Role-playing also becomes important— Children often play the roles of ‘mommy,’ ‘daddy,’ ‘doctor,’ and many other characters. I also observe Brook playing with friend by chasing each other one as police office the other one is bad guy. Piaget noted that children in this stage do not yet understand concrete logic, cannot mentally manipulate information, and are unable to take the point of view of other people, which he termed egocentrism. When Brook hit by the ball he didn’t understand it was accedital it keep crying.

According to Eriksson theory Brook categorized under preschooler stage. They begin the third stage of psychosocial development centered on initiative versus guilt. Play is an important role at this stage. Children have their sense of initiative reinforced by being given the freedom and encouragement to play. Now it is important for kids to learn that they can exert power over themselves and the world. They need to try things on their own and explore their own abilities. By doing this, they can develop ambition and direction. Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment by taking initiative by planning activities, accomplishing tasks and facing challenges. During this stage, it is important for caregivers to encourage exploration and to help children make appropriate choices. Caregivers who are discouraging or dismissive may cause children to feel ashamed of themselves and to become overly dependent upon the help of others.

During in my observation Brook is happy and health boy. Even though his little bit shy his physical, social, emotional development is in normal range as compere to as the same age him. But his social skill is not fully developed.

According to our book, children already kick, throw, jump and climb. But from I observe Brook prefer play by him self rather interacting with otho er children. From my observation he like to run and want to the silde repated, he wait to his turn to take the slide.

It is as children enter the preschool years that they begin the third stage of psychosocial development centered on initiative versus guilt. If they have successfully completed the earlier two stages, kids now have a sense that the world is trustworthy and that they are able to act independently. Now it is important for kids to learn that they can exert power over themselves and the world. They need to try things on their own and explore their own abilities. By doing this, they can develop ambition and direction. Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment by taking initiative by planning activities, accomplishing tasks and facing challenges. During this stage, it is important for caregivers to encourage exploration and to help children make appropriate choices. Caregivers who are discouraging or dismissive may cause children to feel ashamed of themselves and to become overly dependent upon the help of others.

This stage can sometimes be frustrating for parents and caregivers as children begin to exercise more control over the things that impact their lives. Such decisions can range from the friends they play with, the activities they engage in, and the way that they approach different tasks. Parents and other adults might want to guide children toward certain friends, activities, or choices, but children might resist and insist on making their own choices. While this might lead to some conflicts with parental wishes at times, it is important to give kids a chance to make such choices. However, it is important that parents continue to enforce safe boundaries and encourage children to make good choices through the use of modeling and reinforcement.

As you might guess, play and imagination take on an important role at this stage. Children have their sense of initiative reinforced by being given the freedom and encouragement to play. When efforts to engage in physical and imaginative play are stifled by caregivers, children begin to feel that their self-initiated efforts are a source of embarrassment.

Children who are over-directed by adults may struggle to develop a sense of initiative and confidence in their own abilities.

Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose, while failure results in a sense of guilt. What does Erikson mean by guilt? Essentially, kids who fail to develop a sense of initiative at this stage may emerge with a fear of trying new things. When they do direct efforts toward something, they may feel that they are doing something wrong. While mistakes are inevitable in life, kids with initiative will understand that mistakes happen and they just need to try again. Children who experience guilt will instead interpret mistakes as a sign of personal failure, and may be left with a sense that they are ‘bad.’

The preoperational stage occurs roughly between the ages 2 and 7. Language development is one of the hallmarks of this period. Piaget noted that children in this stage do not yet understand concrete logic, cannot mentally manipulate information, and are unable to take the point of view of other people, which he termed egocentrism.

During the preoperational stage, children also become increasingly adept at using symbols, as evidenced by the increase in playing and pretending. For example, a child is able to use an object to represent something else, such as pretending a broom is a horse.

Role-playing also becomes important — Children often play the roles of ‘mommy,’ ‘daddy,’ ‘doctor,’ and many other characters.

Understanding Egocentrism

Piaget used a number of creative and clever techniques to study the mental abilities of children. One of the famous techniques to demonstrate egocentrism involved using a three-dimensional display of a mountain scene. Often referred to as the ‘Three Mountain Task,’ children are asked to choose a picture that showed the scene they had observed.

Most children are able to do this with little difficulty. Next, children are asked to select a picture showing what someone else would have observed when looking at the mountain from a different viewpoint.

Invariably, children almost always choose the scene showing their own view of the mountain scene. According to Piaget, children experience this difficulty because they are unable to take on another person’s perspective. During this stage (toddler through age 7), young children are able to think about things symbolically. Their language use becomes more mature. They also develop memory and imagination, which allows them to understand the difference between past and future, and engage in make-believe.

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