Diplomacy: The Paris agreements, is where all nations in the come together for the common cause of helping fight climate change and help developing countries achieve it as well. It is the first global climate deal that is legally binding. The agreement, wants to keep the temperature increase to under 2 degrees celsius this century. The agreements requires further transparency between the governments, through the use of through reports and meetings.
Propaganda: Propaganda, is the spread of information for a specific purpose. During the past, and in the present, it was used not only by ultranationalists, but by several democratic nations as well, including Canada. During WW2, the Nazi party of Germany used propaganda was a crucial method of having individuals support the Nazi regime. After the third reich was in power, they appoinsted a ministry of propaganda, named Joseph Goebbels, the goal was to make anyone who the Nazi’s disliked appear as enemies. These enemies included Jews, homosexuals, disabled people and the communist party. Anti-semitism was used in various forms of propaganda, appearing even in children’s books. One of the nazi propaganda news papers stated that the Jews were taking away small children, because they wanted to mix the christian blood of the Germans with their own. History books were rewritten to glory the greatness of Germany in the past. The Nazi’s displayed the atrocities of the concentration camps in a way that completely disguised what the Jews were going through. The propaganda videos, shows the Jewish individuals having a lovely time, with loads of food and activities to do, while the reality couldn’t be more different.
Trade: Exports Imports Wood, because Canada is rich with forests and trees Clothings, because labour is very cheap all across Asia and Bangladesh, due to the very low labour standards Mineral fuels including oil, because Canada and especially Alberta is rich with oil Machinery, because many car factories are located in other countries around the world Vegetables, because the climate in Canada allows for the growth of vegetables Electronics and technological equipment, because the factories of many companies are located in countries across Asia The economic benefit of exporting oil is tremendous in Canada. Alberta’s oil amounts for a large percent of Canada’s overall GDP. British Colombia has a large supply of trees, which means that they profit greatly out of the timber industry. Vegetables are grown all across Canada and they provide economic benefits to many provinces.
Tariffs and Quotas: During the great depression, many countries were facing economic crisis, and many individuals were out of work. Many countries, decided to use tariffs as a way of protecting their own economies. This caused a decrease in international trade, since many foreign goods were much more expensive to buy than domestic products. Loans and Credits: Currently, Afghanistan is a country that is has been torn apart by warfare and armed conflicts. Many individuals living in the country don’t feel safe at their homes, and many are starting to flee. The country, has taken a loan from the IMF. The IMF, provides loans to third world countries, but while it provides these loans, many third world countries including Afghanistan cannot pay the debts back. This will lead to the creation of heavily indebted countries, which are countries that cannot pay back the loans the IMF and the world bank gives them.
Foreign aid: UNICEF, is an organization of the united nations, that is providing aid to children in third world countries around the world. Currently, this organization has provided aid to children in Burundi, Malta, Latvia and many other countries. UNICEF has helped eliminate polio from 122 countries since 1988. The united nations, consists of 193 nations, and these nations are multilaterally working on providing aid to children in third world countries. UNICEF, also gets funded through NGOs and individuals. The aid, includes school supplies, medicine food and water and other types of aid to children in third world countries.
Boycotts and economic sanctions: Canada, currently has many sanctions against third world countries, including Zimbabwe. These sanctions, were put up because of the human rights violations, political violences experienced in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe has had an escalation in the worsening human rights conditions and violence that has been directed towards the political opposition. There have been no attempts in having a peaceful democracy in Zimbabwe. The sanctions, were put in place in 2008 when Canada adopted the Special Economic Measures Act regulation. This disallowed the arms trade with Zimbabwe, along with sanctions. These sanctions are still present to this day, and Canada will remove them where there are improvements in human rights and democracy. The sanctions have still not have had an effect on Zimbabwe and the country still continues to infringe upon the rights of its citizens
Economic warfare: Countries, often engage in economic activities with other nations in order to gain access to goods not available in their own country, and to sell their products on another market so that their country becomes more prosperous. When two or more countries engage in an economic warfare, countries try to weaken their opponents economy, which causes it to become weaker politically and militarily. The effectivity of this method is based on many different factors, ranging from if the country can maintain trade with other allies, or if they can acquire sanctioned goods from another country. Many consumers are also affected during an economic warfare, since if the goods are sanctioned higher, they will need to pay for those goods. Economic warfare has been used by the United States in the past, during the reign of Fidel Castro in Cuba, and the US has had an embargo on their products. Economic warfare, in most cases, causes a country to reduce its military force in order to try to maintain its economy, which will cause it to become a lesser threat. While most countries will do so, sanctions in North Korea caused a growth in its military, since instead of fixing their economy, they invested their resources in creating a stronger army.
Cultural relations: While many nations, including America, have individuals from many cultures living as one, many often don’t know what other cultures stand for. America’s leader, Donald Trump, has no idea what many cultures stand for, and judges them from his own perception of what different cultures stand for. He banned many Muslim countries for the threat of terrorism, while only a handful of extremist groups commit terrorism. When a government is aware of different world views and cultures, they can have a more knowledgeable stance of many global issues. If nations are more aware of other nations world wides and their perspectives, their wants and their needs, our world would improve greatly. Alliances could be formed and more nations will see what other would want, so our world would become much more interconnected.
Clandestine actions: The CIA, was formed, because of the unforeseen attacks on pearl harbour, and the need for an agency which would provide data regarding hostile nations. The soviets and the US were in a period called the cold war, and the CIA helped provide data to the US. The CIA, tunneled in east Berlin, and tapped into soviet cable lines. It was hard for the American agents to find information in a regular manner, and to infiltrate soviet bases, so the government needed to use advanced technology. Lockheed U-2 aircraft was used, which could take pictures from above soviet bases. The CIA and the military formed the NRO, which was a joint operationation where the CIA could have access to satellites, to find more data on the soviets.
Military Intervention: Following the attacks of september 11th, the US sent military forces to Afghanistan to capture Al-Qaeda and Bin Laden for their crimes against the United States. Several other NATO nations, including Canada, Netherlands and the UK aided the US in their hunt for Al-Qaeda. Even though NATO found and killed many members of Al-Qaeda and their leader Bin Laden, many troops are still deployed in Afghanistan for peacemaking missions. Afghanistan is home to many terrorist groups and many citizens don’t feel safe, and NATO troops are trying to ensure in Afghanistan’s safety. If I were the leader of the US, I would definitely lead my troops to Afghanistan, because if they attacked my country once, they would do it again, and the next time could be more deadly. NATO troops are in Afghanistan, because of the national interest of the countries. Some nations, believe that if Afghanistan is left alone, it will become a terrorist hub again.
War and the threat of war: The partition plan, which came from the Indian Independence Act, allowed Kashmir to chooses whether they wanted to be part of India or Pakistan. Kashmir chose to be past of India and a two year war broke out in 1947. There were two more wars, one in 1956 and one in 1999 against this land. The population of Jammu and Kashmir is 60% muslim, which is the higher percentage of muslim in a state of India. Most Kashmiris want to be either independant or part of Pakistan. India and Pakistan agreed to ceasefire in 2003, following years of conflict and bloodshed. There’s conflict again in the region because of the new indian government that came into power in 2014 and attacks by Pakistan based military group in Kashmir. As of 2018, India and Pakistan have agreed to a truce on the Kashmir border. As both Pakistan and India have nuclear weapon capabilities, a war between the two over Kashmir can prove to be catastrophic. Millions could die, and the one that do survive will be affected by the fallout. The conflict between India and Pakistan didn’t have the attention of the international community as it does now, since both of the countries can obliterate the others if they had to. If a nuclear war were to happen, it would disrupt much of the world trade, and affected those that live furthest to those regions in someway.
Negotiations and mediation: During the interwar period, Hitler took the land the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia. After the treaty of versailles was signed, that land had been live to Czechoslovakia, but Hitler believed that it belonged to Germany. After Hitler took the land, 3 countries started a negotiation, and these countries included Italy, France and Britain. These countries along with Germany negotiated the takeover of the land. The world, didn’t want another world war, which is why instead of hostile action, these countries decided to start to work diplomatically. Hitler, stated that he will not take over any land if they let him keep this land. The other countries, agreed, and they let Hitler take over sudetenland. The countries, believed that if this land was given to Hitler, he will not take over any other land. This method, failed to work during the time, and Hitler took over the rest of Czechoslovakia in a short manner of time afterwards. Negotiations helped to work with Hitler.
Treaties and alliances: Currently, many countries are allied with each other, through many different organizations, including NATO. These treaties, ensure in the collective security of the nations involved, and when a country is under attack, the allied countries will provide aid to them. During WW1, when the archduke of Austria was assassinated, Austria-Hungary wanted to go to war with Serbia. Russia, was an ally of Serbia and back Serbia up, and so did Germany with Austria. As different nations joined in to help, the war went from a regional conflict between Austria and Serbia to a world war. Many different nations were brought into the war, including Britain, because of a pact they swore to Belgium and France because Russia was an ally of theirs. The different alliances, pacts and treaties led to the outbreak of the first and second world war.
Collective security: NOT DONE The UN, is an international organization that has delegates from over 193 countries around the world, discussing worldwide issues. The organization, was founded after the failure of its predecessor, league of nations, in 1945. Delegates from their respective countries try to resolve problems diplomatically before aggression. Although the UN doesn’t offer complete
International Law: Ahmad Al Faqi Al Mahdi,was arrested on 18, September 2015. He was an alleged member of Ansar Eddine, which was associated with Al Qaeda until September 2012, and in the works with the Islamic Court of Timbuktu. He was found guilty of war crimes, directed at the destruction of buildings in Timbuktu, Mali for religions reasons in both June and July of 2012. Mr Al Mahdi was responsible for attacking nine mausoleums and one mosque.He was sentenced for nine years in prison as of September 7, 2016.
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