According to this article”Carbon Capture and Storage as a Method to Mitigate Climate Change”, climate warming and greenhouse effect have become serious challenges for global environment. Climate change is one of the most complex issues facing us today. It involves many science, economics, society, politics and moral and ethical questions and is a global problem, felt on local scales, that will be around for decades and centuries to come.(nasa ,no date). Especially in some special fields, such as power plants, chemical factories, mining plants, the issue of carbon dioxide emission has become the focus of people’s attention. Through the analysis of the geochemical cycle of carbon, it can be clearly known that carbon is exchanged and recycled in the natural cycle, including long-term and short-term processes. In order to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions, this article deeply discusses the methods of carbon capture and separation and comprehensive analyze the way of carbon storage.
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The first is the capture and storage of carbon, which involves different processes including the pre-combustion, post-combustion and oxyfuel combustion(Leung et al., 2014) . Pre-combustion capture usually occurs in coal or natural gas, and post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) technology is a relatively mature technology in power plant systems.Oxygen fuel combustion is also used in various power plants. In order to store carbon, the carbon is separated after capture.The main methods are absorption, adsorption and membrane separation.The commonly used solvent for absorption is the monoethanolamine (MEA). Adsorption are usually attached to the surface of adsorbent during Carbon dioxide adsorption process .The last way to separate carbon is to use membrane adsorption with high carbon dioxide permeability and selectivity.
The separated carbon is stored in physical and biological ways.Physical carbon storage methods and technologies usually store carbon dioxide in different geological structures, such as abandoned oil and gas reservoirs, deep-sea storage, and saline aquifers.Photosynthesis plays a key role in the carbon cycle, so afforestation not only stores carbon but also increases its capacity to sequester it. Ocean carbon sequestration is also a Giant container to storage the carbon basing on photosynthesis. At present, there are pilot experiments to test whether this method is effective. Microalgae and cyanobacteria have high carbon sequestration capacity also basing on photosynthesis, both of which cost too much.
In conclusion, each carbon capture and storage method shows promise for climate mitigation, but there are many limitations, such as cost and immature technology and so on. Physical methods are relatively immaturity and play a small role in some industries.Lack of government incentive mechanism, high cost operation.Blue bacteria and algae are also being studied. Carbon sequestrationg are the advantage methods in order to mitigate climate change and reduce greenhouse gases emissions, although the limitations of technology now.
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