Tribal communities are scattered all the states of India. All tribals are having same characteristics and problems. They have their own culture and lifestyle. After independence some changes and development have been taking place but still expected success could not cover by them. Through this article special focus given on the various problems and the role of government for maintain the policy of development in current scenario. The serious and important problems have been discussed in this article and suggestions with eradication plan mention for fix the direction of tribal development. The discussion held up about constitutional provisions for tribal communities along with the various schemes and plans started by government for the tribal’s. The main problem i. e. naxalisem has been illustrate in detail with causes, effects and solutions. In current scenario, how the tribal’s exists them self and resist for survival. While implementing the government plans, its side effects also mention in this article. Indian bur orates, loopholes in administrative process are illustrated. The role of current process like industrialization, urbanization, modernization and globalization also explain with the current status of tribal community. The role of tribal commission, implementation of constitutional articles, political reservation and place, provision of special fund in the budget etc are the essential factors are related to the tribal development and empowerment. In the last part of article common illustration with present facts narrated and what actually everyone has to do for the overall development of tribal’s mentioned in detail. his is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Tribe is a human group having same characteristics and indices of the tribal life. The common language, territory, common culture and life style are the basic qualities of tribal’s. Tribals have same economy and criteria in daily routine life all over India. Madhypradesh, Uttarpradesh, Zarkhand and Maharashtra are the main states having maximum number of tribal community in India. Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura areas are the main tapus of tribal’s. 55% tribal population found in Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa, and Madhya Pradesh. In the all states tribal communities having functional interdependence, economically backward, Primitive recourses, multifarious economic pursuits and geographic isolation with regional variations. Khasi, Gond, Bhil and Agaria are the major tribal communities in India.
Cultural evolution and colonialism are the main factors of tribal communities. As per the constitutional concept of India scheduled tribe is a main *Corresponding author: Dr. Swati Girase Assistant Professor of Geography, M. J. F. College, Amravati, India. recognized person in this community for political representation and getting the benefits from government. Also we can say that social evolutition start from tribals. Mainly social political system and structure have been started by tribals. As per the anthropologist tribals are the basic of human beings. Similarities and Characteristics of Tribal Community Close bonding in relationship, primary kinship, hierarchy less society structure, primary groups, formal organizations, primary village level marketing, existence of customs and traditions in daily life. Ethics, morals, norms and values are the components of controlling the social system. Concepts of Gotul and clan are very common among the tribal’s. These are the cultural institutions of tribal’s. In daily life these institution play a keen role for maintain the proper status in tribal communities.
arious Problems of Tribal Communities in India As per the dictionary, problem means a question to be considered, solved, or answered in a particular way, difficult to deal or control. Social problems are those social conditions identified by scientific inquiry and values as detrimental to human well-being. ” Jerome G. Manis, Social problem is an aspect of society that people are concerned about and would like change. Social problems begin with an objective condition, some aspect of society that can be measured or experienced. No. of problems are facing by tribal communities in current scenario. As per Andre Beteille, the tribe as a mode of organization has always differed from the caste-based mode of organization. But tribes are not always easy to distinguish from castes particularly at the margins where the two modes of organization meet. Some tribes have been more isolated than others but at least in the interior areas where the bulk of the tribal population is to found none has been completely free from the influence of civilization.
Also we can say that areas wise there are various problems but similarity is there. Following are the main problems of tribal community In Indian tribal society concern, the proportion and intensity of the problems are so serious. Each and every step of life there is a chain of problems. Naxalisem After independence this problem has been raised in Indian tribals. Now a day’s tribal’s caught between two lobbies i. e. police authority and naxal persons. Most of the tribal peoples getting suffered and psychological disorder. Naxals directly kill, exploit and threaten for fulfillment of their aims. Another side policemen torture creates doubts to the tribal’s. In this way the tribal persons totally disturb and confused. There are various causes, effects and remedies about this problem.
Poverty is a main disease of tribal’s. There are various causes behind this problem. Majority of tribes live under poverty line. Primary occupations, lack of resources and industrialization, derogated social and economic life, illiteracy are the various factors related to it. Due to poverty malnutrition, high crime and death rate, physical and psychological disorders have been facing by tribal’s.
Tribal population suffers chronic disease like water and air born, malnutrition, deficiency of iodine and calcium. Tuberculoses, due to alcoholism liver dysfunction, leprosy etc are the common diseases present among the tribal’s. Lack of medical facilities and awareness still after 65 years of independence tribal’s are using their traditional methods, existing superstations and old disease remedial practices which hamper on their social and familiar life and destroy the social construction.
Tribal’s totally depend on agriculture and supplementary primary occupations. Tribal’s history is full of land alienation and colonialism. Moneylenders Zamindars and traders are exploited to the tribal’s in various angles. With the concept of industrialization and urbanization the ratio of forest decline speedily. After that tribal’s started to search the jobs at different places like mining, industries and tertiary sectors. Again as per the theory of Karl Marks tribal’s which considered in have not groups were exploited by have groups. Most of the occupation falls into the primary occupations such as hunting, gathering, and agriculture. The technology they use for these purposes belong to the most primitive kind. Therefore when outsiders exploit the tribe’s land and its resources the natural life cycle of tribal ecology and tribal life is greatly disturbed.
Education is very long to tribals. Lack of transport facilities, old mentality, unattraction of administration and government, availability of traditional experience and knowledge etc are the various reasons are responsible for the degraded educational situation. Fears of naxal persons the employees are not ready to go there and perform their duties in remote and tribal communities. Educationally the tribal population is at different levels of development but overall the formal education has made very little impact on tribal groups. Formal education is not considered necessary to discharge their social obligations. Superstitions and myths play an important role in rejecting education. 7925 Dr. Swati Girase. The problems of indian tribal communities in current scinario
Like other culture, in tribal communities also gives place to ethnocentromocisem concept. Interactions with other culture, the tribal’s going to spoil to their own culture. Due to influence of Christian missionaries the problem of bilingualism has developed which led to indifference towards tribal language. Same situation also for religious problems which create the daily hassles on the way of tribal’s. Unnecessary cultural and religious activities disturb to tribal’s and pulls towards ineptness. Therefore suicide cases, tension, stress, familiar disturbance takes place in these communities. Women related issues Like other society, tribal’s show the division of labour. The classification of works has been divided between male and female. Generally hard and heavy works done by male and secondary works perform by females. Obisally as per the concept of gender inequality tribal women put on secondary places. Exploitation by husband, excessive load of children, heavy burden and load of work hamper directly to the tribal women.
Child abuse and exploitation are very common in tribal communities. Due to the concept ‘kids are the natural gifts of god’ the number of child is more among the tribal’s. Childs are neglected and avoided from their basic human rights. In spite of education they involve in various types of works with their parents. In that way they corrupt their childhood as well as whole life.
After independence Government of India has been started various schemes and plans for the upliftment and development of tribal status. But expected success could not get and still there is need of time to frame developmental policies for them.
While perusing the study it is noticed that very few officers, employees are interested to give their services in remote tribal region. It has various causes like fear of naxals persons, familiar problems, interior area, transportation problems etc. Lack of efforts of NGOs, Social reformers and Workers Generally we have been seen in urban and rural society many NGOs and social workers are actively involved in all the sphere of activities. But about tribal society this situation is not favorable and suitable also. Therefore still tribal’s are living in non develop stage. Strategy and plans to eradicate the various problems of Tribal’s Tribal community is an ancient stage of human beings. Since the origination this community is backward and detracted. As human beings in the age of globalization there is a need of time to pull the tribal’s into the main stream of development. For the overall development of tribal communities all factors of society have to participate in the development process. The main role of government and administration always expected for the development of these communities. Strictly implementation of various government schemes and plans is essential and important for the development of scheduled tribes. Following can be done for overall development of the tribal’s- Creation of various government schemes and plans For the healthy and fast development of tribal’s there is a need to establish convenient and proper developmental plans and strictly implementation of it. Unfortunately improper control of government and involmnent of corruption in administrative process could not give the expected result. Therefore government should take precaution and make the agenda for it. All the plans should corruption free and depend on democratic principles. Expansion of education Now a day’s education is a tool of development.
Therefore the educational environment and expansion should be there. Basic, free and primary education is pillar of higher education therefore special attention has to be given towards it. Sort-out and identification of hurdles in the process of tribal development should be evaluated and make up the direction related to it. Awareness, scholarships, incentives and prizes can attract the attention of tribal’s so it would be attached with the process of education. 7926 International Journal of Development Research, Vol. 06, Issue, 05, 7924-7927, May, 2016 Eradication of old thoughts, rituals and old customs Tribals are basically backward and economically restricted. Therefore first motivate to them for overall development. This can be done with help of education. Therefore education policy has to implement properly. Useless activities and traditions should not be participated. Such awareness always useful to enhance the social, economic status of tribal’s. Role of Local authority and political groups Tribals are very close to their relatives and therefore they believe on them. Cast panchayat, village panchayat, own community etc are the primary sectors of tribal’s.
If the special emphasis given to authority can send the massages to their communities. In this way self appraisal process can useful to the development. Special attention to marginal, women and children Women and child are the most affected part in tribal community. Therefore special emphasis has to be given on them. If they improve, definitely it will help to enhance the status of tribal’s. As early as possible exploitation should be stop and this awareness can play important role in tribal society. Eradication of various problems among the tribal’s Already we have seen various problems involve in tribal communities. Naxalisem is main problem in current scenario. Its stigma and question mark that after 60 years of independence government fails to sort out this problem, why? It has different aspects and reasons. For the overall development of tribal’s, first upon eradicate the various problems facing by tribal’s. Involment of development and modern issues Modernization, industrialization, urbanization and globalization process would be assimilated in the life of tribal’s. Creation of industries, transportation facilities, effects of science and technology, job recourses etc factors are the main components of development. Therefore these factors have to work out for overall tribal development. Role of economic sound class As a human being economic sound peoples have to focus on tribals. Through the help of various plans, charity work, donation they can help to the tribal’s. Economic sound class can run hostels, schools, centers and many social activities for the development of these communities. Centrelization of tribal communities Centralization is the most important concept for the development of tribal’s. Mainly remote tribals should bring on such a places where all facilities centralized. In this way interior tribal communities will get the benefit and come in the flow of development. Also government has to give special package for the development of them and such type of provision should be there.
As per various Article of Indian Constitution like Article 15(4) and 29 for education, employment provision as per Articles 16(4), 320(4) and 333,economic matter Article 19,against bonded labour article 23 and social justice for tribal’s article 46 etc. In political safeguard are also important like Article 330,332,164 which present the political protection to Tribal’s. Government of India always focus on promoting the educational and economic interests of the Scheduled Tribes. Some important plans started by central and various state government in respective state like cooperative societies, price support to trifled, village grain bank, educational schemes, tribal advisory council,20 points programmes etc. There is a need of time to frame the various plans for tribal’s and strictly implement the plans for overall development. Eradication of all the basic problems of tribal’s and provides the solutions on it. From all the levels everyone has to participate in development strategy of tribal’s. Government should be serious about the development of tribal communities. All the plans establish by government should be corruption less and highly motivated by officers and employees.
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