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The Process Of Aging & Age-Related Diseases

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Age-related diseases are commonly noticeable among older adults. Alzheimer’s Disease (also called senile dementia), for instance, affects the central nervous system and is known to worsen over time. It begins in the hippocampus and slowly travels throughout the regions of the cerebrum. Signs of this disease are memory loss, troubles with finishing recognizable tasks, vision loss, and experiencing personality and mood changes. Moreover, Atherosclerosis, a cardiovascular disease, can strike any age group (predominantly people in their 50s or 60s) but doesn’t pose a significant threat unless you smoke, have high cholesterol or blood pressure. While there are treatment options, these diseases are incurable and can last a lifetime.

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Matteo Tosato and Valentina Zamboni (Department of Gerontology 2011) concur that the immunologic theory, inflammation theory, and mitochondrial theory play a key role in understanding the physiological changes in life expectancy. While doctors are developing new antibiotics and vaccines, scientists are conducting a particular test on patients who have already taken these medicines. It turns out that some of these patients have Anaphylaxis, a rare, life-threatening drug allergy that causes the systems in your body to become dysfunctional. Instead of the medicine eradicating the deadly diseases and giving a defense boost for the immune system, lengthening the human lifespan, it has increased the chances of the patients with Anaphylaxis to have seizures, low blood pressure, eosinophilia, and inflammation in the kidneys, harming the cells and putting him or her at risk. Scientists discovered that the immune system mistakenly identified the drug as a virus invasion, causing the cells to react to it.

Aging may be complicated in human boundaries, but scientists have discovered something beyond comprehension, which is a type of jellyfish known as the Turritopsis dohrnii. They are the only creatures said to be “immortal” because they undergo a process known as transdifferentiation, which involves a cell type to transform into another cell type. The American Museum of Natural History (2015) reported that once they reproduce, their bodies shrink, their tentacles withdraw, and then they sink into the ocean floor, repeating the juvenile polyp cycle as if their parents brought them into the world for the first time. While these creatures are still wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma, scientists concluded that they could not die under normal circumstances, whereas humans naturally die from natural causes, an ailment associated with aging since the cells stop operating correctly; nonetheless, Turritopsis dohrniis can die if an infectious disease targets them or if a predator eats them. In fact, there is no answer to the oldest Turritopsis dohrnii since scientists haven’t kept them in a laboratory long enough, and it would take decades or possibly centuries to record an estimated age number.

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