Erythrosine (disodium salt of tetra iodofluorescein) an artificial red dye (cherry-pink) vastly used in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic colouring made from coal tar (Combes and Haveland-Smith, 1982). According to the World Health Organization iodine may be affect thyroid which leads to thyroid tumors. Erythrosine gives positive results with chromosomal aberration test and negative results with Ames test (Ishidate et al., 1984). In recent studies there is a great interest in published genotoxicity data on erythrosine which proved that erythrosine induces DNA damage in stomach, colon, lung and bladder (Sasaki et al., 2002). On the contrary, Carminic acid has negative result as genotoxic compound when it was tested by in vitro micronucleus test on human peripheral lymphocyte cells with and without the post-mitochondrial fraction (S9) (Geissel, 2014).
Potassium sorbate is one of most used food preservatives in juices, cakes, wine and personal care products. Potassium sorbate gives positive result with in vitro chromosomal aberration test when treated a Chinese hamster fibroblast cell line at 4mg/ml for 48h (Ishidate et al., 1984). It reduces mitotic index to more than 50% of control value at concentration 0.04M, it also cause sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberration at concentration 0.005M (Abe and Sasaki, 1977). Additionally, potassium sorbate causes DNA strand breaks in blood lymphocytes by using alkaline comet assay (Mamure et al., 2010). Eugenol is the major component of clove oil that reduces the genotoxic effect of cyclophosphamide, procarbazine, N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosguanidine and urethane by conducting in vivo micronucleus assay on bone marrow cells. There is no genotoxicity when eugenol is administered to mice alone (Abraham, 2001). Furthermore, clove oil has not genotoxicity on human embryo lung cells (HEL12469) after 24h (Puskarova et al., 2017). However, Isoamyl acetate (Banana oil) does not induce chromosomal aberrations at a concentration 2mg/ml for 48h on a Chinese hamster fibroblast cell line (Ishidate et al., 1984). Butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA) at concentration 1×10-4M reduces mitotic index to more than 50% of control value and at 0.001M lead to stop mitosis and causes sister chromtid exchange at concentrations 1×10-6M, 1×10-5M and1×10-4M (Abe and Sasaki, 1977). On the other hand, BHA has negative result in chromosomal aberration test on chinese hamster cells in vitro (Ishidate and Odashima, 1977).
Also, BHA makes chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells when the S9 (metabolic activator) incubates with it but BHA at concentrations do not exceed 300 μM, it does not affect the chromosomes of CHO cells (Philips et al., 1989). In the other hand, Vitamin C is an antioxidant and free radicals scavenger (Shamberger, 1984 and Anderson, 1996). Its usefulness as antioxidant is important for protection of DNA from oxidative damage by various agents (Stich et al., 1979). Also it has antitumor effect against many clastogenic agents like cyclophosphamide (Gebhart et al., 1984 and Ghaskadbi et al., 1992). Vitamin C at 10 and 100 μg/ml does not alter the mitotic index of human lymphocytes but cisplatin is anti-tumor agent which used to investigate the anti-clastogenic effect of vitamin C at 0.5 μg/ml reduces the mitotic index and induces chromosomal aberrations. While inhibitory effect of cisplatin on the mitotic activity and chromosomal aberrations reduce in pre-treatment, simultaneous and post-treatment of vitamin C (Nefic, 2001).
Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide made out of aspartic and phenylalanine. Aspartame causes a chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes at (500, 1000 and 2000 ppm) after 24h and 48h and it doesn’t induce sister chromatid exchange (Rencüzoǧulları et al., 2004). Sorbitol has anticancer activity mentioned in a lot of studies, one of these examinations is that sorbitol induces apoptosis in human colon cancer cell line (HCT116) (Lu et al., 2014).
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