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Abstract expressionism is an art movement in American painting, post–World War II. It was developed during the 1940s in New York. It was the first American movement to achieve international influence. The term “abstract expressionism” was initially used in 1919 in a German magazine called Der Sturm concerning German Expressionism. It was later on practiced in American art by the art critic Robert Coates. Abstract expressionism is split into two groups; action painters and colour field painters. Action painters use expressive brush strokes while colour field painters use one single colour to fill their canvas.
Action Painting accentuated the progressive idea of the artist’s choice to paint. they were not keen on portraying illusionistic scenes but rather rendering the vitality and development of life in a noticeable manner on the canvas. While regularly connected with gestural painting, Action Painting was intended to involve a variety of artists, despite the fact that the specialists themselves shield far from embracing the moniker.
Colour Field Painting, a phrase created by Clement Greenberg, an art critic. It was initially utilized to portray the works by Abstract Expressionists who used an extensive amount of saturated colour. Frequently thought about as a subset inside Abstract Expressionism, Color Field painters shared the enthusiasm for large-scale canvases, pure abstraction and flat space. Nonetheless, they dismissed the dynamic motion of their partners for huge arrays of less emotion, all the more contemplative colour. The following generation of Colour field painters focused on restricted paint gestures, for example, pouring paint as opposed to utilizing a brush, open compositions and emphasized the relationship between the canvas and the forms painted inside it.
Jackson Pollock was the man leading the abstract expressionist movement. He was an American painter who enjoyed his impressive reputation and fame. Pollock’s dignity lies in progressing one of the most fundamental abstract styles. He redefined painting and drawing categories, detached line from colour and found a new way to portray pictorial space.
The She-Wolf was painted a long time before he started making use of his drib style, yet the uninhibited reflection in the work gives a clue about his future procedure. The work of art seems to reference the Roman myth of Romulus and Remus; however, Pollock would not decipher it. Pollock had stated that She-Wolf only exists because he had painted it. Any attempt for him to explain it could only destroy it. This work of art was one of Pollock’s first solo exhibition. It was also his first painting in a museum after being purchased by MoMA.
Pollock made this painting in 1943, commissioned by Peggy Guggenheim. In order for this painting to be done, Pollock had to tear the partition he had in between two rooms in order for the canvas to fit, since it was 160 square-feet. Similar to The She-Wolf, Mural also references mythology but was much closer to his drip paintings. It was Pollock’s first experiment with commercial paints. Although most of the composition was done with a brush, Pollock declared his drip techniques when he flicked pink paint onto parts of the canvas.
This painting shows Pollock’s development from 1947 to 1950. This was when he started to splash, squirt and drip paint on large canvases. Lavender Mist is a great example of gestural abstraction. This technique, where paint is poured or speared uses extreme physicality in order to mirror the painter’s inner mind. Pollock creates space by using drips and layers of dense paint. This effect causes the canvas to be textured and gives an illusion of dizziness. The colours used are also very expressive. From Pollock’s 32 paintings shown in his 1950 exhibition in New York, it was the only one that was sold. Today Lavender Mist is thought to be one of the most significant works from Pollock’s “classic period”.
Mark Rothko, A painter known for his unique canvases including squares. After dropping out from Yale University, Rothko Studied under Max Weber in New York. Inspired by the paintings of Milton Avery, he made use of the same flattened volumes and rich colours. During this time, Rothko created various interiors and figure paintings. Rothko deviated to nonobjective abstraction in the late 40’s. He started creating multitudes of pure colour rather than figures in space. At the age of 66, being extremely depressed the painter committed suicide in 1970. Today Rothko’s work can be found in many museums and galleries all over the world.
At the Sidney Janis Gallery, Rothko displayed ten paintings in 1969; Four Darks in Red was one of them. With its dull, limited palette, the image embodies Rothko’s late-period attraction towards browns and reds. In spite of the fact that the symbolism of paintings like Four Darks in Red appears to be far different from that of Slow Swirl at the Edge of the Sea (1944), Rothko accepted that the square shapes simply offered another method for speaking to the existences or spirits that he attempted to catch in those prior works. ‘It was not that the figure had been removed,’ he once said, ‘..but the symbols for the figures… These new shapes say.. what the figures said.’ along these lines, Rothko envisioned a sort of direct communication among himself and the person viewing.
Rothko hosted an event where he invited people to view his last series of paintings, the Black on Grays. Some people thought that these paintings were feelings of his death. Others interpreted them as moon landscapes, some others said that they were paintings taken from photographs at night. The Black on Grays were not taken seriously which upset Rothko greatly. This wasn’t new to Rothko as he often felt that he was the only one who could ever understand his paintings. Rothko seriously limited the hues and downsized the canvas to an increasingly receptive and intimate size since he was only working in two registers. Due to the huge contrast between light and dark, the painting suggests a sadness that is interpreted as a tragic and mythic psychological drama.
Slow Swirl at the Edge of the Sea is a perfect instance of Rothko’s Surrealist period. The impact of Miro is very clear, explicitly in Miro’s The Family(1924). Rothko’s all-over arrangement of odd translucent figures, muted hues, angles and horizontal lines, and whirls make a lively yet hidden image of a darken primitive scene. Painted while pursuing Mary Beistel, who might turn into his second spouse, this unusual scene can likewise be deciphered as an affair in a mystical world, where the figures are enjoying the sea as a rose shaded light is breaking seemingly on the horizon.
Franz Kline, an American Abstract Expressionist who started off as a realist. He is mostly famous for his big abstract black and white paintings. During his studies, looking up to Old Masters like Rembrandt, he became very confident with his style as a realist. Kline started practicing abstract after he settled in New York. He influenced many Minimalists with his unique tactic to gestural abstraction and gained a vast recognition all over the world.
Kline never experimented with figurative painting in his work, unlike other artists like de Kooning and Pollock. Painting No. 7 is one of many from his black and white paintings. What defines the composition is its stiff geometry made up of thick black lines. It could have been Kline’s reconsideration of Malvich’s painting of squares.
Critics’ comments on the images included in Kline’s show of 1950, established the design for later on ratings with the variety of theirs of analogies. Chief was the title of any locomotive Kline remembered from his childhood and also, it is feasible to look at picture as a sensory reminiscence of its steaming, sound, and power engine. Some thought the artist’s obsession with black color was connected to his youth spent in a coal mining society dominated by serious business. Many folks have since noted, nonetheless, the types in these first abstractions appear to have developed from Kline’s drawings of his wife Elizabeth. He created many sketches of her relaxing in a rocking chair in the years when she started succumbing to mental illness; the circular types in Chief bear comparison with the blank circles representing her face in the drawings.
Four Square is one more illustration of Kline’s examples with angular compositions. Though evidently organized within the compositional rigidness, Four Square is a good instance of his gestural method of painting. The person viewing is directed in contemplating the canvas, possibly seeing a close up associated with a linguistic sign or even, maybe, a pair of windows that are open. With this painting Kline is additionally trying to put together a three-dimensional abstract composition, while the majority of the Abstract Expressionists preferred the two-dimensional therapy of pictorial surface area. Kline accomplishes the visible impact of depth by way of dynamic juxtapositions of horizontal and vertical lines as well as their diagonal overlapping.
Though not as well known as several of his contemporaries from the New York School, Clyfford Still was the very first to discover an alternative and radically abstract design devoid of apparent subject matter. His mature pictures make use of wonderful fields of color to evoke remarkable conflicts between man and also nature happening during a monumental scale. He previously believed that these aren’t paintings in the typical sense, they are the living and the dead merging in a fearful union.. they kindle a fire; through them, he inhales once again, holds a golden power cord and finds his own personal revelation. A believer in art ‘s moral worth in a disorienting modern-day world, Still would continue to affect a generation of Color Field painters.
1944-N No.2 represents a crucial turning reason for Still ‘s development to totally non-representational painting. Together with its solely abstract subject material, additionally, it exhibits other products that he’d use all through his career: a powerful connection in between horizontal and vertical forms; a predominantly black palette highlighted by aspects of bright colors; a very textured surface resulting from the usage of a palette knife; and also, the adoption associated with a non-referential naming device composed of numbers as well as dates. 1944 N No.2 is additionally important in becoming one of a few replicas which Still created all through his profession.
1948-C can serve as an ideal instance of Still ‘s older technique as it came out in the mid to late 1940s: figuration has disappeared totally, being swapped out by only an unusual, crackling area of color. The picture shows characteristically remarkable relationships between compositional components – background and foreground; light and dark. It’s additionally distinctive of Still ‘s art coming from the late 1940s simply being dominated by contrasting colours – in this painting, hot yellows.
Still started moving towards much more vertically oriented canvases in the mid-1950s, a shift that’s apparent in 1957-D-No. 1. In this particular painting, the fleeting flashes of color which interrupted the dull expanses of previous paintings are monumentally scaled vertical forms which rise and then fall across a nearly mural like composition. Art historian David Anfam has noticed how Still was attracted to compositions that evoke liberation and enclosure, containment as well as precarious release. Here the remarkable tension of black and yellow suggests just that contrast.
Joan Mitchell was a top American Abstract Expressionist artist. Doing her work in an inventive gestural technique, Mitchell’s paintings are characterized by the luminous layers of inspiration and color from nature. She names her paintings after they’re done. Mitchell paints remembered landscapes – and recalls thoughts and feelings she had, which are then transformed. Mitchell obtained both an MFA and BFA from the School of Art Institute of Chicago. Going to New York in the late 1940s, she was presented with the ideas espoused by Hans Hofmann, Willem de Kooning and Jackson Pollock. In 1951, Mitchell was a part in the ‘Ninth Street Show,’ curated by Leo Castelli at the Artists’ Club in Greenwich Village. Over the following years, the artist divided the time of her between New York and Paris, developing the design of blocky forms of lyrical color that she’s currently known for. She is remembered throughout the Joan Mitchell Foundation that provides grants for painters and sculptors in the United States.
Untitled was One of Mitchell’s most influential works that was exhibited in 1052 at The Gallery in New York. Joan Mitchell left her mark in abstract painting. Their explosive element makes them remain close to Abstract Expressionism, although her large canvases are post-Cubist due to their precise articulation of spatial intervals.
City Landscape is an important example of Mitchell’s first work. Her use of the figure ground relationship is clearly shown in the stress between the vibrant horizontal brush strokes and plain surrounding. The painting additionally displays her debt to Philip Guston, whose Abstract Expressionist art was usually compared to Impressionism.
Tilleul is the perfect example of Mitchell’s landscape abstractions. Telleul is a French work for a linden tree. She created a series of paintings all inspired from a tree that was opposite her house in Vetheuil, France. Not really a representation, the thick vertical strokes of color evoke the core of tree branches reaching upward.