Please note! This essay has been submitted by a student.
Sex implies biological characteristics that define humans as female or male. But, the term sex is usually understood as “sexual activity” in general use of various languages. According to World Health Organization (2006), sexual health is defined as a state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality. It is not only the absence of disease, dysfunction or weakness. Sexual health needs a positive and respectful motion to sexuality and sexual relationships, additionally the possibility of having enjoyable and safe sexual experiences, free of oppression, bias and brutality. In order for sexual health to be achieved and maintained, everyone’s sexual rights should be respected, defended and fulfilled. To obtain sexual health, safe sex is required. Thus, sufficient knowledge are needed in order to have safe sex.
Precisely, safe sex is defined as sexual practices that exclude the exchange of bodily fluids including blood, sperm, secretion from vagina, and saliva, to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and aquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Generally, the meaning of the term “safe sex” is to imply absence of penetration in sex or sex using condoms or other types of preventative measures with consistency. (Shiel, W. C., 2018).
According to World Health Organization (n.d.), the second rank among the top ten risk factors of health in terms of weight of disease they cause is unsafe sex. The reason for the high rank is due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In addition, sexually transmitted disease (STD) is recognised to increase the possibility of HIV infection and virus transmission. Chen et.al (2016) has conducted a cross-sectional study on ‘Comparison of Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behaviour between Female Chinese College Students from Urban Areas and Rural Areas: A Hidden Challenge for HIV/AIDS Control in China’ emphasized that a proportion of students from urban areas with sexual awareness prior to the age of 15 years (16.1%) was significantly higher than the proportion of students from rural areas in China (10.0%). Another research conducted by Mutha et.al (2014) on ‘Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Survery regarding Sex, Contraception and Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Commerce College Students in Mumbai’ has reported that their participants particularly females does not have sufficient information about sexuality and related matter. Meanwhile, a study conducted by Yamamoto, K. (2006) on cross-sectional study on Attitudes toward Sex and Sexual Behaviour among Japanese College Students has reported their finding that 75% of the sexually-experienced students reported having used a condom for their first sexual intercourse, while 73% of them used a condom for their most recent sexual intercourse. Thus, based on the previous studies mentioned, the purpose of this literature review is to identify factors that seems to influence knowledge, attitude, and perception of safe sex culture among different college students.