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The Role of DNA and Genetics in Down Syndrome

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Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that causes intellectual disability and other physical and learning challenges. It’s also called “trisomy 21” as it caused by the existence of an extra copy of chromosome 21 (Pregnancybirthbaby.org.au, 2019). The person who was pictured with down syndrome was an angel, in a 1515 Flemish painting. Initially down syndrome was described as a disorder by Doctor John Langdon in 1866. Langdon unclear on how down syndrome occurred to an individual. The cause of down syndrome was come across in 1959 (Sietske N. Heyn, 2019).

Currently in Australia, there are more than 13,000 people with down syndrome. Since 2007 the number of Australian babies born with down syndrome has been over 270. Consist of the number of births, 270 which has been gathered from the recorded from 4 states. The determining is formed on the facts that the geographic growth of people with Down syndrome is equal of the overall population (Downsyndrome.org.au, 2019). DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA molecule is shaped a long thin string, made of nucleotides. Nucleotides are sometimes called “bases.” Bases consist of four different type including: Adenine, thymine, cystosine, guanine, and are normally indicated by the first letter of their names. Adenine – A, Thymine – T, Cystosine – C, and Guanine – G (Betterhealth.vic.gov.au, 2019).

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Genes are small sections of DNA which code for specific protein which control most characteristics, functions and for everything needs to do to grow (Yourgenome.org, 2019). The genetic makeup of an organism consists of the alleles that the organism obtains from its parents. A genetic disorder is caused by an altered gene or set of genes. The four broad groups of genetic disorders include single gene disorders, chromosome abnormalities, mitochondrial disorders and multifactorial disorders (Betterhealth.vic.gov.au, 2019). A genetic disorder is a condition which occurs due to a flaw in a person’s DNA. Abnormalities can be minimal, such as a single-base mutation in a single gene or include additional or fewer of whole chromosomes (Learn.genetics.utah.edu, 2019).

Symptoms of down syndrome include a flat face. the eyes are lazy or spots, angled upward. the head of a being with down syndrome is normally small head, short neck. Their hands are likely to be short with a single flexion crease in the palm. Others features such as the ears are small, and tongue is overhanging. Children who have down syndrome usually experience a decreased muscle town at birth. Usual growth and maturing are often slowed down and usually a person with down syndrome doesn’t reach the typical height or developmental transformations of unaffected person. It’s common for an individual with down syndrome to have problems with thinking and learning and often ranges from not extreme.

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